Tyranni: Suboscines

Passeri: Oscines


Muscicapoidea and allies

The 47 Orders














New World Suboscines: Tyrannides Wetmore & Miller, 1926

We turn to the New World suboscines and find that the avian tree is again divided into two parts: Tyrannida and Furnariida. This division seems to date from the Eocene. Oliveros et al. (2019) estimate the split occurred about 35 mya while Harvey et al. put it earlier, at 42 mya. As Tyrannida is the smaller group, by over 100 species, it goes first.

New World Suboscines I: Tyrannida Wetmore & Miller, 1926

The Tyrannida are the smaller group of New World suboscines. Historically, they have been variously separated into three to five families, sometimes including the Phytotomidae (plantcutters) and Oxyruncidae (sharpbill). The taxonomic position of a number of the Tyrannida has been often been called into question (e.g., McKitrick, 1985), and even discerning the major groups has sometimes been a problem.

More recent treatments have generally involved four main groups: Pipridae (manakins), Cotingidae (cotingas), Tityridae (tityras and becards), and Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers). The last is sometimes divided. However, other than argeement that they are each other's closest relatives, as recently as 2010, there was no consensus on how they relate. There are 18 possible fully resolved trees. Some analyses do not fully resolve the tree, but of those that do, at least five different versions have appeared in the recent literature. Three major contenders are shown below.

Tyannida tree

There are also a number of taxa that have been quite troublesome. Some had been flagged by McKitrick (1985). In 1989, Prum and Lanyon had success using morphological evidence to argue that Schiffornis, previously considered manikins, were actually part of a clade related to the becards and tityras. This was later supported by genetic evidence. Some of the other birds in the clade had previously been considered Tyrannidae. They also called attention to some additional problematic genera, including Neopipo, Piprites, Neopelma, Tyranneutes and Sapayoa that seemed misplaced. Of course, if you've looked at the previous page, you know that the Sapayoa was more than a little misplaced.

It was eventually realized that Sapayoa is an Old World Suboscine. Neopelma and Tyranneutes are now known to be manakins. But what about Neopipo and Piprites? And what about other troublesome taxa such as the sharpbill?

Before describing the solution, let's look at the problem. There are several relatively easily recognizable groups in the Tyrannida, the manakins, cotingas, tityras, and tyrant flycatchers in the broad sense. Together, they involve over 600 species. Our problem is to organize this diversity using our usual categories: family, subfamily, tribe, genus.

We use two main tools to assess differences between taxa: (1) genetic differences, how long ago did the groups split, and (2) what do they look like? Sometimes we will use other information, such as behavior, but mostly it's a combination of genes and appearance.

The Solution: Five Small Families

A solution I (and others) favor has emerged during the last decade or so. One important paper in this was Ohlson et al. (2013a). They noted that several of the recognized troublesome species and groups (and some others too) are quite distantly related to the main clades. They estimated the most recent common ancestors from these groups to the nearest major clades occurred 25-30 million years ago, during the Oligocene. Oliveros et al. (2019) come to a similar conclusion, but with slightly later dates, spanning the boundary between the Oligocene and Miocene. Harvey et al. (2020) is also similar, but with dates in-between Oliveros et al. and Ohlson et al.

The current arrangement of families is that of Oliveros et al. (2019) and Harvey et al. (2020). It involves the creation of 5 small families between the tityra and the tryant flycatchers. Each small family is on a separate, deep branch of the Tyrannida tree. These families are illustrated in green on the diagram below. The small families are: Oxyruncidae (sharpbill), Onychorhynchidae (royal-flycatchers), Pipritidae (piprites), Platyrinchidae (spadebills), and Tachurididae (many-colored rush tyrant). Further, we take a page out of the Sibley-Monroe checklist and divide the still unwieldy tyrant flycatchers into two sizeable families: Rhynchocyclidae and Tyrannidae.

Tyrannida tree

One of these distinct groups is the familiar Sharpbill, which has often been treated as a monotypic family (Oxyruncidae). The plantcutters do not qualify as a family, being well embedded in the cotingas. A second group, that is closest to the sharpbill, contains the Royal Flycatcher(s), the Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher (Terenotriccus) and the yellow-rumped Myiobius flycatchers. Harvey et al. (2020) note an alternative arrangement where these two families more closely related to the tityra family than to anything else.

The other new families appear to be closer to the main group of Tyrannidae. The three Piprites, once considered manakins, form a new family (Pipritidae). The spadebills, together with the Neopipo and Kinglet Calyptura (Platyrinchidae) form another family. The Many-colored Rush Tyrant, with its coloration that is more like an Old World pitta than a New World tyrannid, has no close relatives at all (Tachurididae). Finally, we endorse the idea of Sibley and Ahlquist (1985c), of a group containing the Mionectine flycatchers, along with the flatbills and tody-flycatchers. This is the family Rhynchocyclidae.

I'm referring to the Rhynchocyclidae as Mionectine flycatchers because Sibley and Ahlquist initially tried to designate them as the family Mionectidae. It turned out that the group already had a name. At first it was believed that Pipromorphidae was the correct name, having been named by Bonaparte back in 1853 or 1854. However, a problem appeared. The genus Pipromorpha did not yet officially exist. It would not exist until Gray named it in 1855. If the term had been in common use, this wouldn't matter much, but it seems to have remained completely unused until revived by Wolters (1977). This unusual circumstance means that the first valid use of this old term was in 1977! Its priority dates to that and it is properly attributed to Wolters.

But there are further complications. Other genera in the Mionectine group may also bear family names. A previous version of the TiF list treated the group as a subfamily together with Platyrinchinae and Tachurididae. Since Platyrinchidae dated to Cabanis (1847), it took priority. Now, Platyrinchidae has been separated, so Rhynchocyclidae (Berlepsch, 1907 (1854)) takes priority. Its priority dates to 1854 because Bonaparte had created the family Cyclorhynchinae based on Cyclorhynchus. Now Cyclorhynchus is a junior synonym of Rhynchocyclus. Berlepsch introduced the replacement name in 1907, and as a replacement name prior to 1961, it takes the original priority. Complicated, no?

Pipridae: Manakins Rafinesque, 1815

16 genera, 54 species HBW-9

Click for Pipridae tree
Click for Pipridae tree

In the past, several would-be manakin species have turned out to be something else (e.g., Sapayoa). It now seems there is a core group of manakins, which consists of the species listed below except the NeopelmaTyranneutes clade, (see Rêgo et al., 2007).

The comprehensive studies of Ohlson et al. and Tello et al. gave us confidence that all of the members of the Pipridae have now been correctly identified, and the even more comprehensive analysis of Harvey et al. (2020) has confirmed that.

As with the rest of the suboscines, the order here, families, genera, species, is now based on Harvey et al. (2020). The paper by Leite et al. (2021) gives an almost identical tree, and much detail.

The Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin, Neopelma chrysolophum, is not closely related the other Neopelma. An alternate genus name is not available and I designate it "Neopelma" until one is available. This change in the tree (Harvey et al., 2020, Leite et all, 2021) has allowed me to return to a narrow Tyranneutes and a broad Neopelma.

The genus Antilophia has been merged into Chiroxiphia, as Chiroxiphia would otherwise be paraphyletic (Agne, 2012).

Ohlson et al. (2013b) suggested placing the Green Manakin in a separate genus rather than folding it into Lepidothrix. Since no such genus was available, they created the monotypic genus Cryptopipo for it.

Based on Moncrieff et al. (2022), Harvey et al. (2020), SACC, and AOS Supplement 64. I've split the Blue-crowned Manakin, Lepidothrix coronata into Velvety Manakin, Lepidothrix velutina, and Blue-capped Manakin , Lepidothrix coronata. I've also reordered the Lepidothrix manakins based on Moncrieff et al. (2022).

The genus name of the White-crowned Manakin has been changed to Pseudopipra (Kirwan et al., 2014b) from Dixiphia. Kirwan et al. note that Dixiphia is a junior synonym of Arundinicola d'Orbigny, 1840.

Based on Lane et al. (2017), the Striped Manakin, Machaeropterus regulus, has been split into

  • Striolated Manakin, Machaeropterus striolatus
  • Painted Manakin, Machaeropterus eckelberryi
  • Kinglet Manakin, Machaeropterus regulus

Neopelminae: Tyrant-Manakins Tello et al., 2009

  1. Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin, "Neopelma" chrysolophum
  2. Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin, Tyranneutes stolzmanni
  3. Tiny Tyrant-Manakin, Tyranneutes virescens
  4. Wied's Tyrant-Manakin, Neopelma aurifrons
  5. Pale-bellied Tyrant-Manakin, Neopelma pallescens
  6. Sulphur-bellied Tyrant-Manakin, Neopelma sulphureiventer
  7. Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin, Neopelma chrysocephalum

Piprinae: True Manakins Rafinesque, 1815

  1. Pin-tailed Manakin, Ilicura militaris
  2. Golden-winged Manakin, Masius chrysopterus
  3. White-throated Manakin, Masius gutturalis
  4. White-ruffed Manakin, Masius alter
  5. White-bibbed Manakin, Masius leucorrhous
  6. Yungas Manakin, Chiroxiphia boliviana
  7. Blue-backed Manakin, Chiroxiphia pareola
  8. Long-tailed Manakin, Chiroxiphia linearis
  9. Lance-tailed Manakin, Chiroxiphia lanceolata
  10. Swallow-tailed Manakin / Blue Manakin, Chiroxiphia caudata
  11. Helmeted Manakin, Chiroxiphia galeata
  12. Araripe Manakin, Chiroxiphia bokermanni
  13. Black Manakin, Xenopipo atronitens
  14. Olive Manakin, Xenopipo uniformis
  15. Yellow-headed Manakin, Chloropipo flavicapilla
  16. Jet Manakin, Chloropipo unicolor
  17. Green Manakin, Cryptopipo holochlora
  18. Orange-bellied Manakin, Lepidothrix suavissima
  19. White-fronted Manakin, Lepidothrix serena
  20. Blue-rumped Manakin, Lepidothrix isidorei
  21. Cerulean-capped Manakin, Lepidothrix coeruleocapilla
  22. Velvety Manakin, Lepidothrix velutina
  23. Blue-capped Manakin, Lepidothrix coronata
  24. Snow-capped Manakin, Lepidothrix nattereri
  25. Opal-crowned Manakin, Lepidothrix iris
  26. Golden-crowned Manakin, Lepidothrix vilasboasi
  27. Orange-crowned Manakin / Orange-crested Manakin, Heterocercus aurantiivertex
  28. Yellow-crowned Manakin / Yellow-crested Manakin, Heterocercus flavivertex
  29. Flame-crowned Manakin / Flame-crested Manakin, Heterocercus linteatus
  30. White-bearded Manakin, Manacus manacus
  31. Golden-collared Manakin, Manacus vitellinus
  32. White-collared Manakin, Manacus candei
  33. Orange-collared Manakin, Manacus aurantiacus
  34. Wire-tailed Manakin, Pipra filicauda
  35. Crimson-hooded Manakin, Pipra aureola
  36. Band-tailed Manakin, Pipra fasciicauda
  37. Club-winged Manakin, Machaeropterus deliciosus
  38. Fiery-capped Manakin, Machaeropterus pyrocephalus
  39. Kinglet Manakin, Machaeropterus regulus
  40. Striolated Manakin, Machaeropterus striolatus
  41. Painted Manakin, Machaeropterus eckelberryi
  42. White-crowned Manakin, Pseudopipra pipra
  43. Scarlet-horned Manakin, Ceratopipra cornuta
  44. Red-capped Manakin, Ceratopipra mentalis
  45. Red-headed Manakin, Ceratopipra rubrocapilla
  46. Golden-headed Manakin, Ceratopipra erythrocephala
  47. Round-tailed Manakin, Ceratopipra chloromeros

Cotingidae: Cotingas Bonaparte, 1849 (1822)

24 genera, 66 species HBW-9

Click for Cotingidae tree
Click for Cotingidae tree

Ohlson et al. (2012) showed that the Kinglet Calyptura, traditionaly placed in the cotingas, is not a cotinga at all. Rather, it belongs with the spadebills (Platyrinchidae). Although sometimes made a separate family, the Phytotomidae (plantcutters) are part of the Cotingidae.

The overall structure of Cotingidae is now based on Harvey et al. (2020). Earlier relevant analyses included Ohlson et al. (2007), Tello et al. (2009), and Berv and Prum (2014). . I've distinguished several clades as subfamilies and tribes. The most basal is the fruiteater clade (Pipreolinae). This is followed by the weakly supported red cotinga/berryeater clade (Rupicolinae). Tello et al.'s (2009) analysis also grouped these species together, while Ohlson et al. (2007) placed Snowornis elsewhere. Snowornis has been a troublesome genus. It was once considered part of Lipaugus. The next branch is the plantcutter clade (Phytotominae). The Swallow-tailed Cotinga belongs in this clade, as do the Zaratornis, Ampelion and Doliornis cotingas.

The rest of the cotingas are more closely related and I've put them all in the Cotinginae subfamily. The basal branch (Cephalopterinini) includes most fruitcrows, the umbrellabirds, and capuchinbird. Berv and Prum (2014) found that the Capuchinbird is sister to the Amazonian Umbrellabird. Although Tello et al. (2009) placed the Capuchinbird in a different position, Harvey et al. (2020) concur with Berv and Prum, and that is followed here. Accordingly, I have returned it to the monotypic genus Perissocephalus (Oberholser 1899).

The next branch (Gymnoderini) is a group of lowland cotingas. Earlier analyses suggested that the Gymnoderini and blue cotingas (Cotingini) formed a single clade, but that now seems unlikely. The last two branches are the bellbirds (Procniatini), and pihas except Snowornis (Lipaugidini). The genus Tijuca has been merged into Lipaugus.

The Capuchinbird, Cephalopterus tricolor, is now longer nested in the umbrellabirds in the Harvey et al. tree, allowing me to return it to the monotypic genus Perissocephalus. Although the genetic distance between the Capuchinbird and umbrella-birds is fairly small, they are quite distinct, justifying a separate genus.

Based on Hennessey (2011) and SACC #494 the Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Phibalura flavirostris is split into two species:

  • Palkachupa Cotinga, Phibalura boliviana
  • Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Phibalura flavirostris

Although the SACC proposal failed, it did gain a majority of the votes (a supermajority is required to pass). The Palkachupa or Apolo Cotinga is also recognized by the IOC and HBW Checklists. I suspect it really is a separate species, and so have split it.

Pipreolinae: Fruiteaters Tello et al., 2009

  1. Scaled Fruiteater, Ampelioides tschudii
  2. Handsome Fruiteater, Pipreola formosa
  3. Fiery-throated Fruiteater, Pipreola chlorolepidota
  4. Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater, Pipreola frontalis
  5. Barred Fruiteater, Pipreola arcuata
  6. Green-and-black Fruiteater, Pipreola riefferii
  7. Band-tailed Fruiteater, Pipreola intermedia
  8. Red-banded Fruiteater, Pipreola whitelyi
  9. Golden-breasted Fruiteater, Pipreola aureopectus
  10. Black-chested Fruiteater, Pipreola lubomirskii
  11. Orange-breasted Fruiteater, Pipreola jucunda
  12. Masked Fruiteater, Pipreola pulchra

Rupicolinae: Red Cotingas and Berryeaters Bonaparte, 1853

  1. Andean Cock-of-the-rock, Rupicola peruvianus
  2. Guianan Cock-of-the-rock, Rupicola rupicola
  3. Black-necked Red-Cotinga, Phoenicircus nigricollis
  4. Guianan Red-Cotinga, Phoenicircus carnifex
  5. Olivaceous Piha, Snowornis cryptolophus
  6. Gray-tailed Piha, Snowornis subalaris
  7. Hooded Berryeater, Carpornis cucullata
  8. Black-headed Berryeater, Carpornis melanocephala

Phytotominae: Plantcutters Swainson, 1837

  1. White-cheeked Cotinga, Zaratornis stresemanni
  2. Palkachupa Cotinga, Phibalura boliviana
  3. Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Phibalura flavirostris
  4. Rufous-tailed Plantcutter, Phytotoma rara
  5. Peruvian Plantcutter, Phytotoma raimondii
  6. White-tipped Plantcutter, Phytotoma rutila
  7. Red-crested Cotinga, Ampelion rubrocristatus
  8. Chestnut-crested Cotinga, Ampelion rufaxilla
  9. Chestnut-bellied Cotinga, Doliornis remseni
  10. Bay-vented Cotinga, Doliornis sclateri

Cotinginae: Cotingas Bonaparte, 1849 (1822)

Cephalopterinini: Fruitcrows and Umbrellabirds Reichenow, 1914

  1. Crimson Fruitcrow, Haematoderus militaris
  2. Purple-throated Fruitcrow, Querula purpurata
  3. Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, Pyroderus scutatus
  4. Capuchinbird, Perissocephalus tricolor
  5. Bare-necked Umbrellabird, Cephalopterus glabricollis
  6. Long-wattled Umbrellabird, Cephalopterus penduliger
  7. Amazonian Umbrellabird, Cephalopterus ornatus

Gymnoderini: Lowland Cotingas Bonaparte, 1840

  1. Purple-throated Cotinga, Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema
  2. Bare-necked Fruitcrow, Gymnoderus foetidus
  3. Black-faced Cotinga, Conioptilon mcilhennyi
  4. Black-tipped Cotinga, Carpodectes hopkei
  5. Snowy Cotinga, Carpodectes nitidus
  6. Yellow-billed Cotinga, Carpodectes antoniae
  7. Pompadour Cotinga, Xipholena punicea
  8. White-tailed Cotinga, Xipholena lamellipennis
  9. White-winged Cotinga, Xipholena atropurpurea

Cotingini: Blue Cotingas Bonaparte, 1849 (1822)

  1. Plum-throated Cotinga, Cotinga maynana
  2. Spangled Cotinga, Cotinga cayana
  3. Lovely Cotinga, Cotinga amabilis
  4. Turquoise Cotinga, Cotinga ridgwayi
  5. Blue Cotinga, Cotinga nattererii
  6. Purple-breasted Cotinga, Cotinga cotinga
  7. Banded Cotinga, Cotinga maculata

Procniatini: Bellbirds Sclater, 1862

  1. Three-wattled Bellbird, Procnias tricarunculatus
  2. White Bellbird, Procnias albus
  3. Bearded Bellbird, Procnias averano
  4. Bare-throated Bellbird, Procnias nudicollis

Lipaugidini: Pihas Bonaparte, 1854

  1. Rufous Piha, Lipaugus unirufus
  2. Rose-collared Piha, Lipaugus streptophorus
  3. Screaming Piha, Lipaugus vociferans
  4. Cinnamon-vented Piha, Lipaugus lanioides
  5. Black-and-gold Cotinga, Lipaugus ater
  6. Gray-winged Cotinga, Lipaugus conditus
  7. Chestnut-capped Piha, Lipaugus weberi
  8. Dusky Piha, Lipaugus fuscocinereus
  9. Scimitar-winged Piha, Lipaugus uropygialis

Tityridae: Tityras, Becards G.R. Gray, 1840 (1832-33)

7 genera, 36 species Not HBW Family

Click for Tityridae tree
Click for Tityridae tree

The taxonomically troubling Schiffornis group has now grown into a family: Tityridae. The process dates back at least to McKitrick (1985), who grouped Schiffornis (considered manakins) with the tityras and becards (from Tyrannidae) using a morphological phylogeny, as did Sibley and Ahlquist (1985) using DNA hybridization. Prum (1989) examined more taxa and found the current Tityridae, except for Tityra itself, using morphology by adding Iodopleura and Laniisoma from the Cotingidae and Laniocera and Xenopsaris from the Tyrannidae. Finally, the Sibley-Monroe Checklist (Monroe and Sibley, 1993) put the whole package together as Tityrinae

For earlier sequence based analysis of the Tityridae, see Barber and Rice, 2007; Ohlson et al., 2008, 2013a; Tello et al., 2009. Based on those papers, the basic generic organization had reached its current form, except that there was some disagreement about whether Laniisoma and Laniocera are closest relatives, as in Ohlson et al., and Tello et al., or whether Laniocera is closer to Schiffornis, as found by Barber and Rice.

Harvey et al. (2020) confirm that Laniisoma and Laniocera group together. They also found three deep clades within the tityras. One consists of Schiffornis together with Laniocera, and Laniisoma (Ptilochlorinae). The next branch contains the purpletufts (Iodopleura). There is a fairly deep division between them and the remaining zTityriade, so we separate the purpletufts as their own subfamily (Iodopleurinae, Bonaparte 1854). The original form of the name was Iodopleureae.

The third clade (Tityrinae) consisting of the rest of the Tityridae, including the becards (Pachyramphus) and tityras (Tityra). The clades common ancestor occured about 21 mya.

Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Shrike-like Cotinga, Laniisoma elegans, has been split into

  • Andean Laniisoma, Laniisoma buckleyi, including venezuelense and cadwaladeri.
  • Brazilian Laniisoma, Laniisoma elegans (monotypic).

The Thrush-like Schiffornis, Schiffornis turdina, has been split into five species with the following tentative English names:

The Schiffornis turdina Complex

Species Subspecies Location

Guianan Schiffornis olivacea Guianan shield
Northern Schiffornis veraepacis, dumicola, acrolophites, rosenbergi, ‘buckleyi” Middle America, Chocó-Darién*, Ecuador Pacific slope
Foothill Schiffornis aenea Amazonian Foothills (Ecuador & Peru)
Russet-winged Schiffornis stenorhyncha, panamensis East Panama*, Colombian & Venezuelan Andes
Brown-winged Schiffornis turdina, amazona, wallacii, steinbachi, intermedia Amazon basin, Brazilian Atlantic forest

*Northern & Russet-winged ranges may overlap in Panama

See Nyári (2007), Donegan et al. (2011), and SACC proposals #505, #543, and #543A. There might be more species here and it is possible that further adjustments will eventually be made.

The White-tailed Tityra, Tityra leucura, was long known only from a single specimen collected in 1829 and was thought to be a form of Black-crowned Tityra, until its rediscovery by Whittaker in 2006. Whittaker (2008) makes the case that it is a separate species.

Ptilochlorinae: Schiffornis group P.L. Sclater, 1888

Ohlson et al. (2013a) suggest recognizing this as the subfamily Schiffornithinae (Sibley and Ahlquist, 1985). However, Ptilochlorinae has priority. The subfamily name Ptilochlorinae is based on Ptilochloris (Swainson, 1837) which is a junior synonym of Laniisoma (Swainson 1831, type elegans). However, as the subfamily name was never updated to use Laniisoma before 1961 and it remains Ptilochlorinae.

  1. Andean Laniisoma, Laniisoma buckleyi
  2. Brazilian Laniisoma, Laniisoma elegans
  3. Speckled Mourner, Laniocera rufescens
  4. Cinereous Mourner, Laniocera hypopyrra
  5. Varzea Schiffornis, Schiffornis major
  6. Greenish Schiffornis, Schiffornis virescens
  7. Olivaceous Schiffornis / Guianan Schiffornis, Schiffornis olivacea
  8. Brown-winged Schiffornis, Schiffornis turdina
  9. Foothill Schiffornis, Schiffornis aenea
  10. Northern Schiffornis, Schiffornis veraepacis
  11. Russet-winged Schiffornis, Schiffornis stenorhyncha

Iodopleurinae: Purpletufts Bonaparte, 1854

  1. Buff-throated Purpletuft, Iodopleura pipra
  2. White-browed Purpletuft, Iodopleura isabellae
  3. Dusky Purpletuft, Iodopleura fusca

Tityrinae: Tityras & Becards G.R. Gray, 1840 (1832-33)

  1. Black-crowned Tityra, Tityra inquisitor
  2. Masked Tityra, Tityra semifasciata
  3. Black-tailed Tityra, Tityra cayana
  4. White-tailed Tityra, Tityra leucura
  5. White-naped Xenopsaris, Xenopsaris albinucha
  6. Glossy-backed Becard, Pachyramphus surinamus
  7. Cinnamon Becard, Pachyramphus cinnamomeus
  8. Chestnut-crowned Becard, Pachyramphus castaneus
  9. Gray-collared Becard, Pachyramphus major
  10. Black-capped Becard, Pachyramphus marginatus
  11. White-winged Becard, Pachyramphus polychopterus
  12. Black-and-white Becard, Pachyramphus albogriseus
  13. Pink-throated Becard, Pachyramphus minor
  14. Crested Becard, Pachyramphus validus
  15. Jamaican Becard, Pachyramphus niger
  16. Rose-throated Becard, Pachyramphus aglaiae
  17. One-colored Becard, Pachyramphus homochrous
  18. Barred Becard, Pachyramphus versicolor
  19. Cinereous Becard, Pachyramphus rufus
  20. Slaty Becard, Pachyramphus spodiurus
  21. Yellow-cheeked Becard, Pachyramphus xanthogenys
  22. Green-backed Becard, Pachyramphus viridis

The Five Small Families

Click for Rhynchocyclidae tree
Click for Five Families species tree

We have now reached the five small families. In total, they currently contain fewer than 25 species. They form a modified grade, branching off successively four times (once as a pair) between the tiryras and the mionectine and tyrant flycatchers. The five families marked in green on the tree to the right (click here or on the tree to obtain the species tree). As mentioned before, the five families are: Oxyruncidae (sharpbill), Onychorhynchidae (royal flycatchers), Pipritidae (piprites), Platyrinchidae (spadebills), and Tachurididae (many-colored rush tyrant).

It would be possible to merge all of these, together with Rhynchocyclidae to form a broad Tyrannidae. These groups branched off between 22-25 mya, which is appropriate for family level. They generally don't fit comfortably within Tyrannidae or Rhynchocyclidae. Even the Many-colored Rush Tyrant, which is the most recent branch, has coloration that would be unique in Tyrannidae or Rhynchocyclidae.

Oxyruncidae: Sharpbill Ridgway, 1906 (1831)

1 genus, 1 species Not HBW Family

The sharpbill has long been considered an enigmatic species, of highly uncertain affinities. It was easy enough to see that it belong somewhere in Tyrannida, but it has been impossible to pin down. As a result, it has often been put in its own family, Oxyruncidae. In fact, its family name traces back to 1831 (with a slight spelling change), making it an older name than Tityridae.

Genetic evidence has suggested it is closer to the tityras than to the other major clades. However, it is not very close. Ohlson et al. (2013a) estimated its divergence time from the titryas at around 28 million years. It seems to be slightly closer to the Onychorhynchidae, but not by much. Harvey et al. (2020) estimate the divergence from the tityras at 24.8 million years and from the Onychorhynchidae at 23.7 million years. This distinctive bird with no close relatives is best put in its own family.

There may be multiple species of sharpbills. Harvey et al. (2020) sampled several sharpbills, and found that their common ancestor dates back around 3 million years. There are at least four branches that are old enough to suspect they are distinct species. Apparently there are several areas where the Sharpbill is present, but the subspecies unknown. We have DNA for some of them, but no way to assign the samples to subspecies.

  1. Sharpbill, Oxyruncus cristatus

Onychorhynchidae: Royal-Flycatcher & allies Tello et al., 2009

3 genera, 9 species Not HBW Family

Tello and Bates (2007) discovered a small clade, the “Myiobius assemblage”, hidden within the Tyrannidae. Both they and Rheindt et al. (2008a) found evidence that this clade was a early branch in the Tyrannida, but did not sample enough basal taxa to know where to put it. A paper by Ohlson et al. (2008) samples more of the relevant taxa. Their results suggest that the “Myiobius assemblage” is a basal clade in the Tityridae. However, the more recent paper by Ohlson et al. (2013a) was able to show it is deeply divided from the core Tityridae. They argued in favor of elevating the group to family status, as has been done here.

I've followed AOS's NACC in treating Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher, Myiobius sulphureipygius, and Whiskered Myiobius, Myiobius barbatus as separate species. SACC lumps them into one. Both have recently decided in opposite directions based on the same evidence (or lack thereof). However, Harvey et al. (2020) found they are not sister species. The race mastacalis may also deserve specific status, but again, the evidence is weak.

Whether the Royal Flycatcher, Onychorhynchus coronatus, is one species or four has long been disputed. Harvey et al. (2020) sampled one each of all four of them. The closest pair of taxo, mexicanus and occidentalis, have been separated for about a million years. In view of this, I think it makes sense to recognize four species in the complex.

  • Atlantic Royal-Flycatcher, Onychorhynchus swainsoni
  • Amazonian Royal-Flycatcher, Onychorhynchus coronatus
  • Northern Royal-Flycatcher, Onychorhynchus mexicanus
  • Pacific Royal-Flycatcher, Onychorhynchus occidentalis

The basal split in the Onychorhynchidae tree (Onychorhynchus vs. Terenotriccus plus Myiobius) appears to have occurred about 20 mya, and could be reasonably treated either as two families or subfamilies. I don't believe there is an available name for the yellow-rumped flycatchers, but Myiobiinae would be an obvious choice.

Onychorhynchidae: Royal-Flycatchers Tello et al., 2009

  1. Atlantic Royal-Flycatcher, Onychorhynchus swainsoni
  2. Amazonian Royal-Flycatcher, Onychorhynchus coronatus
  3. Northern Royal-Flycatcher, Onychorhynchus mexicanus
  4. Pacific Royal-Flycatcher, Onychorhynchus occidentalis

Myiobiinae: Yellow-rumped Flycatchers Informal

  1. Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher, Terenotriccus erythrurus
  2. Black-tailed Flycatcher / Black-tailed Myiobius, Myiobius atricaudus
  3. Whiskered Flycatcher / Whiskered Myiobius, Myiobius barbatus
  4. Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher / Sulphur-rumped Myiobius, Myiobius sulphureipygius
  5. Tawny-breasted Flycatcher / Tawny-breasted Myiobius, Myiobius villosus

Pipritidae: Piprites Ohlson et al., 2013a

2 genera, 3 species not HBW family

What the piprites are related to has long been a puzzle. They've variously been placed anywhere from the manakins to the tyrants. We now have a pretty good idea what the piprites are related to. They aren't, or at least not closely. That's why they not only get their own genus, but also their own family. They're roughly equally related to the next four families: Platyrinchidae, Tachurididae, Rhynchocyclidae, and Tyrannidae. I've put them first because the DNA suggests they branched off first.

The Black-capped Piprites is only very distantly related to the other two Piprites. Harvey et al. (2020) estimate that their common ancestor lived over 18.5 mya. Because of this, the other two Pipirtes have been placed in the genus Hemipipo (Cabanis, 1847), type chloris. I make them subfamilies to emphasize that the relation is a very distant one.

Pipritidae: Piprites Ohlson et al., 2013a

Pipritinae: Black-capped Piprites Ohlson et al., 2013a

  1. Black-capped Piprites, Piprites pileata

Hemipiponinae: Hemipipo Informal

  1. Gray-headed Piprites, Hemipipo griseiceps
  2. Wing-barred Piprites, Hemipipo chloris

Platyrinchidae: Spadebills Sundevall, 1836

3 genera, 10 species not HBW family

The Calyptura/Neopipo/Platyrinchus clade is basal within the Platyrinchinae. The Kinglet Calyptura has traditionally been included with the cotingas, but Ohlson et al. (2012) show that it belongs here. The Kinglet Calyptura was long believed extinct when rediscovered in the mid-1990's. It is quite rare and its future remains doubtful.

Although Tello et al. (2009) considered Neopipo unrelated to Platyrinchus, Rheindt et al. (2008a) and Ohlson et al. (2008) found evidence they are sister taxa. This has all be superseded by Harvey et al. (2020), which also found them to be sister taxa.

Harvey et al. (2020) also found a very deep division, about 18 million years, between Calyptura and Neopipo. It could easily be recognized at the subfamily level. I have done so to highlight the deep division between those two species and Platyrinchus.

There are also substantial divisions within Platyrinchus itself, which divided into three groups about 14-15 mya. There appear to be available genus names for each clade, as pointed out by Acanthis on BirdForum. Accordingly:

  1. The Golden-crowned Spadebill, Platyrinchus coronatus, has been transferred to genus Placostomus (Ridgway, 1905, type P.c. superciliaris).
  2. Three spadebills,
    • Stub-tailed Spadebill, Platytriccus cancrominus
    • Cinnamon-crested Spadebill, Platytriccus saturatus
    • White-throated Spadebill, Platytriccus mystaceus
    have been transferred to Platytriccus (Ridgway, 1905, type cancrominus).
  3. Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the White-throated Spadebill, Platytriccus mystaceus, has been split into:
    • Eastern White-throated Spadebill, Platytriccus mystaceus
    • Western White-throated Spadebill, Platytriccus albogularis.
    Yes, they're Platytriccus now.

Here's the result.

Calypturinae: Calyptura and Neopipo Reichenow, 1914

  1. Cinnamon Manakin-Tyrant / Cinnamon Neopipo, Neopipo cinnamomea
  2. Kinglet Calyptura, Calyptura cristata

Platyrinchinae: Spadebills Sundevall, 1836

  1. Golden-crowned Spadebill, Placostomus coronatus
  2. White-crested Spadebill, Platyrinchus platyrhynchos
  3. Yellow-throated Spadebill, Platyrinchus flavigularis
  4. Russet-winged Spadebill, Platyrinchus leucoryphus
  5. Stub-tailed Spadebill, Platytriccus cancrominus
  6. Cinnamon-crested Spadebill, Platytriccus saturatus
  7. Western White-throated Spadebill, Platytriccus albogularis
  8. Eastern White-throated Spadebill, Platytriccus mystaceus

Tachurididae: Many-colored Rush Tyrant Ohlson et al., 2013a

1 genus, 1 species not HBW family

The striking Many-colored Rush Tyrant, Tachuris rubrigastra, has sometimes been erroneously considered an Elaeniid. It has no close relatives, forming a deep branch near Tyrannidae.

  1. Many-colored Rush Tyrant, Tachuris rubrigastra

Rhynchocyclidae: Mionectine Flycatchers von Berlepsch, 1907 (1854)

19 genera, 110 species not HBW family

Sibley and Ahlquist's (1985c) Mionectine group has grown. The genera Pogonotriccus, Phylloscartes, Rhynchocyclus, Tolmomyias, Cnipodectes, Oncostoma (in part), and Myiornis have been added to the original group. Sibley and Ahlquist were correct that these flycatchers are relatively distantly related to the main body of Tyrannidae. In fact, Ohlsen et al. (2013) estimate that the most recent common ancestor was in the Oligocene about 28 million years ago, in about the same time frame as the common ancestor of Piprites, Platyrinchidae, Tachurididae, and Tyrannidae. Harvey et al. (2020) agree that these splits happened in close succession, but put the common ancestor of Rhynchocyclidae and Tyrannidae at 21.8 mya. Oliveros et al. (2019) put the split even earlier, around 18.5 mya. As should be obvious from the times I've quoted here and elsewhere, genetic time calibration is not yet perfected.

Click for Rhynchocyclidae tree
Click for Rhynchocyclidae tree

The diversification of the remaining Rhynchocyclidae occured somewhat later, beginning with a three or four way split around 20 million years ago. We treat the pieces of the split as four subfamilies: Pipromorphinae (core Mionectines), Rhynchocyclinae (Flatbills), Cnipodectinae (Twistwings), and Triccinae (Tody-Flycatchers).

Previous analyses have given different results on the order of splitting. Previously, three sets of genes have been used to investigate these relationships, by Ohlson et al. (2008), Rheindt et al. (2008a), and Tello et al. (2009). Further, Ohlsen (2013a) combines the genes used by Ohlsen et al. (2008) and Tello (2009). Unfortunately, they give different results for which group is basal! Ohlsen et al. (2013) does a time-calibration that rates it a tie, but the rest of their analysis provides a slight bias toward branching in the order shown. The comprehensive analysis by Harvey et al. (2020) endorsed this order, with strong support.

The clades follow Harvey et al. (2020). Tello et al. (2009) proposed the name Todirostrinae for the Triccinae, apparently not realizing that the group already had a name. Triccinae is based on Triccus (Cabanis 1845-46, type T. cinereum), which is an objective junior synonym of Todirostris (Lesson 1831, also type T. cinereum). The name Triccinae was not updated prior to 1961, and so remains the correct subfamily name. It has plenty of priority over Todirostrinae (Tello et al., 2009).

The Mionectine flycatchers and (Pipromorphinae) are the basal branch. Next come the flatbills (Rhynchocyclinae), followed by the twistwing group (Cnipodectes and Taeniotriccus), which I provisionally called Cnipodectinae. We end with tody-flycatchers, tody-tyrants, pygmy-tyrants and the two bentbills (Triccinae).

Notes on Pipromorphinae — Mionectine Flycatchers

We start with the first clade, the Pipromorphinae or Mionectine flycatchers. Besides the Mionectine flycatchers proper (Mionectes and Pipromorpha), Pipromorphinae includes the Corythopis antpipits, the Pseudotriccus pygmy-tyrants, Leptopogon flycatchers, Pogonotriccus bristle-tyrants, and Phylloscartes tyrannulets.

The Slaty-capped Flycatcher, Leptopogon superciliaris has been split into

  • Western Slaty-capped Flycatcher, Leptopogon transandinus, including hellmayri, poliocephalus from the west slope of the Andes, and if needed, troglodytes for the Darien population.
  • Eastern Slaty-capped Flycatcher, Leptopogon superciliaris. This includes
  • White-bellied Flycatcher, Leptopogon albidiventer

This is partly based on Harvey et al. (2020), which tested birds from three areas. All three were separated by 2.0-2.3 million years, suggesting species status. In recent years the various subspecies have been combined, leaving only superciliaris and albidiventer (IOC, HBW, H&M4). Clements-eBird is an exception as it recognizes also transandinus. All but the HBW Checklist consider them a single species. HBW recognizes White-bellied Flycatcher, Leptopogon albidiventer as a separate species.

There used to be more recognized subspecies. H&M3 recognized 7. By comparing ranges and using the Clements-eBird 3 subspecies taxonomy they map as follows: albidiventer is the same; superciliaris = superciliaris + venezuelensis + pariae + eastern poliocephalus (east slope of Andes); transandinus = hellmayri + transandinus + western poliocephalus. H&M3 didn't include the Darien population, sometimes called troglodytes, but Clements-eBird includes that population in transandinus.

The birds sampled were from Costa Rica (hellmayri), Rio Pauya in Loreto, Peru (superciliaris), and La Paz, Bolivia (albidiventer). Given the genetic distance, and the fact that Clements-eBird divided them that way, I'm somewhat speculatively treating them as 3 separate species. The HBW Checklist notes that albidiventer is vocally different, so it is probably ok, but I don't have information about vocalizations of superciliaris vs. transandinus.

I follow Miller et al. (2008) to re-split Mionectes into Pipromorpha and Mionectes. Moreover, Tepui Flycatcher, Pipromorpha roraimae (including mercedesfosterae), has been split from McConnell's Flycatcher, Pipromorpha macconnelli (Hilty and Ascanio, 2014). The sequence is based on Miller et al. (2008). I also divide Pogonotriccus Bristle-Tyrants from Phylloscartes, as is commonly done (but not by SACC, yet). The split between the genera occured about 11 million years ago.

The Olive-striped Flycatcher, Mionectes olivaceus has been split into

  • Olive-streaked Flycatcher, Mionectes olivaceus
  • Western Olive-striped Flycatcher, Mionectes galbinus
  • Eastern Olive-striped Flycatcher, Mionectes venezuelensis

The English names are from the HBW Checklist (volume 2, del Hoyo and Collar, 2016).

Finally, the Junin Flycatcher, Pipromorpha peruana has been split from McConnell's Flycatcher, Pipromorpha macconnelli.

From an SACC point of view, Pogonotriccus has been carved out of Phylloscartes. In H\&M-4 and IOC, they are already separate. However, based on Harvey, et al. (2020), I've augmented them with two Phylloscartes tyrannulets into Pogonotriccus: Serra do Mar Tyrannulet, Pogonotriccus difficilis, and Sao Paulo Tyrannulet, Pogonotriccus paulista. Guess we should call them bristle-tyrants now, but I'll wait for others to make that move.

Pipromorphinae: Mionectine Flycatchers Wolters, 1977

  1. Ringed Antpipit, Corythopis torquatus
  2. Southern Antpipit, Corythopis delalandi
  3. Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant, Pseudotriccus ruficeps
  4. Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant, Pseudotriccus pelzelni
  5. Hazel-fronted Pygmy-Tyrant, Pseudotriccus simplex
  6. Sepia-capped Flycatcher, Leptopogon amaurocephalus
  7. Western Slaty-capped Flycatcher, Leptopogon transandinus
  8. Eastern Slaty-capped Flycatcher, Leptopogon superciliaris
  9. White-bellied Flycatcher, Leptopogon albidiventer
  10. Rufous-breasted Flycatcher, Leptopogon rufipectus
  11. Inca Flycatcher, Leptopogon taczanowskii
  12. Olive-streaked Flycatcher, Mionectes olivaceus
  13. Western Olive-striped Flycatcher, Mionectes galbinus
  14. Eastern Olive-striped Flycatcher, Mionectes venezuelensis
  15. Streak-necked Flycatcher, Mionectes striaticollis
  16. Ochre-bellied Flycatcher, Pipromorpha oleaginea
  17. Serra de Lema Flycatcher, Pipromorpha roraimae
  18. McConnell's Flycatcher, Pipromorpha macconnelli
  19. Junin Flycatcher, Pipromorpha peruana
  20. Gray-hooded Flycatcher, Pipromorpha rufiventris
  21. Serra do Mar Tyrannulet, Pogonotriccus difficilis
  22. Southern Bristle-Tyrant, Pogonotriccus eximius
  23. Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant, Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus
  24. Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant, Pogonotriccus lanyoni
  25. Sao Paulo Tyrannulet, Pogonotriccus paulista
  26. Variegated Bristle-Tyrant, Pogonotriccus poecilotis
  27. Venezuelan Bristle-Tyrant, Pogonotriccus venezuelanus
  28. Spectacled Bristle-Tyrant, Pogonotriccus orbitalis
  29. Chapman's Bristle-Tyrant, Pogonotriccus chapmani
  30. Oustalet's Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes oustaleti
  31. Yellow-green Tyrannulet / Panamanian Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes flavovirens
  32. Olive-green Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes virescens
  33. Restinga Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes kronei
  34. Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes ventralis
  35. Bahia Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes beckeri
  36. Alagoas Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes ceciliae
  37. Bay-ringed Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes sylviolus
  38. Minas Gerais Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes roquettei
  39. Rufous-browed Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes superciliaris
  40. Black-fronted Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes nigrifrons
  41. Ecuadorian Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes gualaquizae
  42. Cinnamon-faced Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes parkeri
  43. Rufous-lored Tyrannulet, Phylloscartes flaviventris

Notes on Rhynchocyclinae — Flatbills

There are two genera in Rhynchocyclinae, Rhynchocyclus, which is well-behaved, and Tolmomyias, which is a mess. Harvey et al. (2020) sampled some of them, but I'm not ready for a full reorganization. I do recognize two splits based on Harvey et al. (2020), and the IOC and HBW Checklists.

  • The Yellow-margined Flycatcher / Yellow-margined Flatbill, Tolmomyias assimilis is split into
    1. Yellow-winged Flycatcher / Yellow-margined Flatbill, Tolmomyias flavotectus (monotypic)
    2. Zimmer's Flatbill, Tolmomyias assimilis.
    This separates the most divergent known Tolmomyias (flavotectus) as a separate species.
  • The Yellow-breasted Flycatcher, Tolmomyias flaviventris is split into
    1. Ochre-lored Flatbill, Tolmomyias flaviventris, including aurulentus and dissors
    2. Olive-faced Flatbill, Tolmomyias viridiceps, including subsimilis and zimmeri.

Well, Tolmomyias is still a mess, but perhaps slightly less so. For one, the position of T. sulphurescens on the tree represents the nominate subspecies. They don't all belong there. At the very least, T.s. cinericeps, sometimes called Gray-headed Flatbill, is sister to Gray-crowned Flatbill, Tolmomyias poliocephalus. I don't have any idea whether other subspecies group with it or not, so I'm not splitting it at this time.

Rhynchocyclinae: Flatbills von Berlepsch, 1907 (1854)

  1. Eye-ringed Flatbill, Rhynchocyclus brevirostris
  2. Pacific Flatbill, Rhynchocyclus pacificus
  3. Olivaceous Flatbill, Rhynchocyclus olivaceus
  4. Fulvous-breasted Flatbill, Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus
  5. Yellow-winged Flycatcher / Yellow-margined Flatbill, Tolmomyias flavotectus
  6. Gray-crowned Flycatcher / Gray-crowned Flatbill, Tolmomyias poliocephalus
  7. Zimmer's Flatbill, Tolmomyias assimilis
  8. Orange-eyed Flycatcher / Orange-eyed Flatbill, Tolmomyias traylori
  9. Yellow-olive Flycatcher / Yellow-olive Flatbill, Tolmomyias sulphurescens
  10. Ochre-lored Flatbill, Tolmomyias flaviventris
  11. Olive-faced Flatbill, Tolmomyias viridiceps

Cnipodectinae: Twistwings Informal?

These three species are rather separated from the Triccinae, with a common ancestor 17-18 million years ago, according to Harvey et al.'s estimates. In person, they seem distinct from the tody-flycatchers, tody-tyrants, bentbills, etc. So I put them in a separate subfamily.

  1. Black-chested Tyrant, Taeniotriccus andrei
  2. Brownish Twistwing, Cnipodectes subbrunneus
  3. Rufous Twistwing, Cnipodectes superrufus

Notes on Triccinae — Tody-Tyrants, Tody-Flycatchers, Pygmy-Tyrants

There are some changes within the tody-tyrants (Triccinae). The whole Hemitriccus group (including Lophotriccus, Myiornis, and Oncostoma) has been run through a blender based on Tello and Bates (2007), Rheindt et al. (2008a), Tello et al. (2009), and of course Harvey et al. (2020).

The current arrangement starts with the Tody-Flycatchers (Todirostrum, Ceratotriccus, and Poecilotriccus, in that order. The genus Todirostrum is basal, and Ceratotriccus and Poecilotriccus are sisters. Ceratotriccus contains a former Hermtriccus tody-tyrant (still called that), and two former Poecilotriccus tody-flycatchers. All three clades are separated by about 8 million years.

The other branch of Triccinae is separated from the first by about 11.4 million years. In it, Hemitriccus is basal. Then there are two pairs of genera, Perissotriccus + Euscarthmornis and Myiornis + Oncostoma. This all involves some restructuring of the genera. I'll describe how it currently stands compared to H&M-4. The avantage of this is that its still recently current, and unlike internet lists, provides a fixed reference point.

The genus Todirostrum still consists of the same species. There is a deep division, almost 10 million years, between Ceratotriccus and Poecilotriccus, which is why I use two genera. The former Hemitriccus, Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant / Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant, Ceratotriccus furcatus, gives the genus its name. It is joined by two former Poecilotriccus.

  • Black-and-white Tody-Flycatcher, Ceratotriccus capitalis
  • White-cheeked Tody-Flycatcher, Ceratotriccus albifacies

One other member of Poecilotriccus, Buff-cheeked Tody-Flycatcher, now Oncostoma senex, moves to Oncostoma. The other members of Poecilotriccus are the same. In contrast, Hemitriccus has been considerably changed,.losing a number of species

Four former Hemitriccus Tody-Tyrants have moved to form the genus Euscarthmornis:

  • Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant, Euscarthmornis margaritaceiventer
  • Hangnest Tody-Tyrant, Euscarthmornis nidipendulus
  • Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant, Euscarthmornis striaticollis
  • Johannes's Tody-Tyrant, Euscarthmornis iohannis.

Its sister genus Perissotriccus has been separated from Myiornis. The remaining Myiornis are part of the next clade, where they have been joined by two former Hemitricdus tody-tyrants.

  • Zimmer's Tody-Tyrant, Myiornis minimus
  • Pelzeln's Tody-Tyrant, Myiornis inornatus.

There was substantial genetic distance (almost 3 million years) in the various Eared Pygmy-Tyrants, Myiornis auricularis, and White-bellied Pygmy-Tyrants, Myiornis albiventris tested by Harvey et al. (2020). Further, albiventris was nested within the auricularis clade. I've not made any changes based on this.

Myiornis is sister to an expanded Oncostoma. As recommended by a combination of Tello and Bates and of Harvey et al., Lophotriccus (including the former Atalotriccus) have been merged into Oncostoma, as have several former Hemitriccus:

  • White-eyed Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma zosterops
  • White-bellied Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma griseipectum
  • Snethlage's Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma minor
  • Pale-green Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma pallens
  • Acre Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma cohnhafti
  • Yungas Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma spodiops.

Oncostoma has also gained the Buff-cheeked Tody-Flycatcher, Oncostoma senex, from Poecilotriccus. Incidentally, the name Oncostoma (Sclater 1862) has priority over both Lophotriccus (Berlepsch 1883) and Atalotriccus (Ridgway 1905).

The Acre Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma cohnhafti, was described by Zimmer et al., (2013), although they use an older taxonomy and place it in Hemitriccus. Although they don't discuss it, their genetic results support separating Oncostoma pallens from Snethlage's Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma minor, as a distinct species. Since pallens refers to the pale-green color, we can call it Pale-green Tody-Tyrant (Todd's Tody-Tyrant is an alternative).

Triccinae: Tody-Flycatchers Heine & Reichenow, 1890

  1. Spotted Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum maculatum
  2. Common Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum cinereum
  3. Maracaibo Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum viridanum
  4. Gray-headed Tody-Flycatcher / Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum poliocephalum
  5. Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum nigriceps
  6. Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum
  7. Painted Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum pictum
  8. Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant / Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant, Ceratotriccus furcatus
  9. Black-and-white Tody-Flycatcher, Ceratotriccus capitalis
  10. White-cheeked Tody-Flycatcher, Ceratotriccus albifacies
  11. Rufous-crowned Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus ruficeps
  12. Johnson's Tody-Flycatcher / Lulu's Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus luluae
  13. Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus calopterus
  14. Black-backed Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus pulchellus
  15. Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps
  16. Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher / Slaty-headed Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus sylvia
  17. Ruddy Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus russatus
  18. Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus latirostris
  19. Smoky-fronted Tody-Flycatcher, Poecilotriccus fumifrons
  20. Drab-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant / Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant, Hemitriccus diops
  21. Brown-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant / Brown-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant, Hemitriccus obsoletus
  22. Flammulated Pygmy-Tyrant / Flammulated Bamboo-Tyrant, Hemitriccus flammulatus
  23. Boat-billed Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus josephinae
  24. Buff-throated Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus rufigularis
  25. Black-throated Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus granadensis
  26. Cinnamon-breasted Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus cinnamomeipectus
  27. Kaempfer's Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus kaempferi
  28. Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus orbitatus
  29. Buff-breasted Tody-Tyrant, Hemitriccus mirandae
  30. Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant, Perissotriccus atricapillus
  31. Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant, Perissotriccus ecaudatus
  32. Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant, Euscarthmornis margaritaceiventer
  33. Hangnest Tody-Tyrant, Euscarthmornis nidipendulus
  34. Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant, Euscarthmornis striaticollis
  35. Johannes's Tody-Tyrant, Euscarthmornis iohannis
  36. Zimmer's Tody-Tyrant, Myiornis minimus
  37. Pelzeln's Tody-Tyrant, Myiornis inornatus
  38. White-bellied Pygmy-Tyrant, Myiornis albiventris
  39. Eared Pygmy-Tyrant, Myiornis auricularis
  40. Buff-cheeked Tody-Flycatcher, Oncostoma senex
  41. White-eyed Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma zosterops
  42. White-bellied Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma griseipectum
  43. Pale-eyed Pygmy-Tyrant, Oncostoma pilaris
  44. Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant, Oncostoma galeatum
  45. Long-crested Pygmy-Tyrant, Oncostoma eulophotes
  46. Double-banded Pygmy-Tyrant, Oncostoma vitiosum
  47. Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant, Oncostoma pileatum
  48. Northern Bentbill, Oncostoma cinereigulare
  49. Southern Bentbill, Oncostoma olivaceum
  50. Snethlage's Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma minor
  51. Pale-green Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma pallens
  52. Acre Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma cohnhafti
  53. Yungas Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma spodiops

Previous Page Next Page