The information below includes the date and a brief description of each significant change, a link to the relevant page, and that page's new version number. Neither minor spelling corrections nor additions to the references are noted on this page.
We were pleased to get a mention in the new ABA “Birder's Guide to Listing and Taxonomy”.
The genus Antilophia has been merged into Chiroxiphia, as
Chiroxiphia would otherwise be paraphyletic. Further, the new
Chiroxiphia has been rearranged. For both, see Agne (2012).
[Pipridae, Tyrannida I, 2.57]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.89.
The genus Charadrius has been carved up into Zonibyx,
Afroxyechus, Eupoda, Ochthodromus, and of course
Charadrius due to the results in Barth et al. (2013). Further,
Elseyornis was merged into Thinornis, which also gains the
Little Ringed Plover (rather uncertainly). Finally, the New Zealand and
Double-banded Plovers have been moved to Anarhynchus from
Charadrius. Additional details are in the file.
[Charadriidae, Charadriiformes, 2.68]
The gender of the Psittacara species has been corrected.
[Psittacidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.73e]
The English name of Acrocephalus musae becomes Garrett's Reed-Warbler
(was Leeward Islands Reed-Warbler) to better match the IOC.
[Acrocephalidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.74b]
I've incorporated Bryson et al. (2013) on the blue cardinalids. I
resorted Amaurospiza and moved the Blue Bunting from
Cyanoloxia to Passerina. I followed Bryson et al. in
splitting Ecuadorian Seedeater, Amaurospiza aequatorialis, from Blue
Seedeater, Amaurospiza concolor, and Rothschild's Grosbeak,
Cyanoloxia rothschildii, from Blue-black Grosbeak, Cyanoloxia
cyanoides. The latter gives me an armchair tick as I have seen
Rothschild's at Alta Floresta (Brazil) and Blue-black in the Canal Zone
(Panama). There were a couple of other possible splits which they are not recommending
at this time. Nonetheless, I additionally split the Turquoise-fronted
Bunting, Passerina indigotica, of western Mexico from Blue Bunting,
[Cardinalidae, Core Passeroidea V, 2.72]
I made some adjustments to the Nightjars and Nighthawks based on
Sigurdsson (2013). He confirmed that the Setopagis did not form a
clade (also suggested by Han et al., 2010). As a result, Setopagis,
Eleothreptus, Systellura, and Macropsalis have been
submerged into Hydropsalis. Further, three species have been split
from the Band-winged Nightjar, Hydropsalis longirostris. They
include Tschudi's Nightjar, Hydropsalis decussata, and Tepui
Nightjar, Hydropsalis roraimae, both also advocated by Cleere (2010),
and Rufous-naped Nightjar, Hydropsalis ruficervix.
Sigurdsson (2013) has identified several other taxa that seem to be
phylogenetic species (including subspecies of the Lesser Nighthawk and
Pauraque). I'm not yet convinced they are biological species and have not
included them here.
[Caprimulgidae, Strisores, 2.59]
I've restructured Corvida and made two adjustments in
the surrounding clades based on Aggerbeck et al. (2014). I'll take the surrounding
clades first. The parvorders Orthonychida and Pomatostomida have been combined
as Orthonychida. This doesn't change the linear order in any way.
[Orthonychida, Paracorvids, 2.65c]
Secondly, I've moved Callaeoidea up two notches to be the basal Passerida group.
[Callaeoidea, Paracorvids, 2.55]
This brings us to Corvida. Mohouidae now forms the basal clade in Corvida. I've merged Oreoicidae into Pachycephalidae, moved Cinclosoma into Pachycephalidae. It's followed by the new monotypic family Eulacestomidae (split from Psophodidae). A little farther down the tree, the Paramythiidae (painted berrypeckers) are also split from Psophodidae.
The next change is in Artamidae. The boatbills (Machaerirhynchidae) have been split off and placed slightly farther down the list. Within the narrow Corvoidea, I've reversed the order of the fantails and drongos, split off Ifrita as its own family (Ifritidae) and moved the Crested Jay (Platylophus) into the shrike family.
The genus name Hafferia (Isler et al., 2013) has been replaced by
Akletos (Dunajewski 1948, type melanoceps). Dunajewski named
the female as a separate species and genus, not realizing that the male was
previously known. The SACC has it listed under “Hybrids and Dubious
Taxa”. That Dunajewski named the female should make no difference as
far as the Code is concerned, thus Akletos has priority.
Note that my version of this genus includes Inundicola, hence the name change.
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.62a]
The arrangement of the chickadees is now based on Harris et al. (2013).
They sequenced a number of additional nuclear genes and found this to be
the most likely topology. Mitochondrial genes consistently give a
different result where the plumage does not make sense.
[Paridae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.74]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.88.
To match IOC, the extinct Mascarene Sheldgoose, Alopochen mauritiana is split into Reunion Sheldgoose, Alopochen kervazoi and Mauritius Sheldgoose, Alopochen mauritiana.
The genus Anas has been rearranged using Mitchell et al. (2014)
and Gonzalez et al. (2009b). Mitchell et al. also discovered that the
extinct Chatham Duck, Anas chathamica, belongs in Anas. It has
[Anatidae, Paleognaths and Anseriformes, 2.63].
Zarudny's Sparrow, Passer zarudnyi, has been split from Desert Sparrow,
Passer simplex. See Kirwan et al. (2009).
I've made a number of corrections to the scientific names based on the 4th edition Howard and Moore checklist (Dickinson and Remsen, 2013).
- African Collared-Dove, Streptopelia risoria becomes roseogrisea;
Great Cuckoo-Dove, Reinwardtoena reinwardtii becomes reinwardti;
and Dwarf Fruit-Dove, Ptilinopus nanus becomes nainus.
[Columbidae, Metaves I, 2.68a]
- Todd's Nightjar, Setopagis heterurus becomes heterura;
Little Nightjar, Setopagis parvulus becomes parvula; and
Cayenne Nightjar, Setopagis maculosus becomes maculosa.
[Caprimulgidae, Strisores, 2.58a]
- Green-backed Firecrown, Sephanoides sephanoides becomes sephaniodes;
and Red-tailed Comet, Sappho sparganura becomes sparganurus.
[Trochilidae, Apodiformes, 2.67a]
- Blue Korhaan, Eupodotis coerulescens becomes caerulescens.
[Otididae, Pelecanae I, 2.61a]
- Galapagos Rail / Galapagos Crake, Laterallus spilonotus becomes spilonota.
[Rallidae, Pelecanae I, 2.61a]
- Black Eagle, Ictinaetus malayensis becomes malaiensis.
[Accipitridae, Accipitrimorphae, 2.59a]
- Romblon Hawk-Owl, Ninox spilonota becomes spilonotus.
[Strigidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.74a]
- Red-bellied Macaw, Orthopsittaca manilata becomes manilatus;
Layard's Parakeet, Psittacula calthropae becomes calthrapae;
Red-throated Lorikeet, Charmosyna aureicincta becomes amabilis; and
Yellowish-streaked Lory, Chalcopsitta sintillata becomes scintillata.
[Psittacidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.73d]
The English name of Chrysococcyx caprius has been name corrected to Diederik Cuckoo
[Cuculidae, Pelecanae I, 2.61a]
The English name of Schiffornis aenea has been corrected to Foothill Schiffornis
[Tityridae, Tyrannida I, 2.56a]
I've made a number of changes in the Antbird family, most of them based on Isler et al. (2013) study of Myrmeciza. A few changes involve the Microrhopiini. The placeholder Myrmeciza1 is replaced by the new name Aprositornis. Its single species, the Yapacana Antbird, Aprositornis disjuncta, moves from Pyriglenini to Microrhopiini near Myrmophylax. The genus Myrmophylax is split with the Gray-bellied Antbird going to the new genus Ammonastes.
Most of the other changes are within Pyriglenini, which is substantially restructured. Except for the type longipes, all of the remaining Myrmeciza are transferred to new genera. The Chestnut-backed Antbird is the new genus Poliocrania and the Gray-headed Antbird is the new genus Ampelornis. The others all take the old name Sipia: Dull-mantled Antbird, Sipia laemosticta, Magdalena Antbird, Sipia palliata, Stub-tailed Antbird, Sipia berlepschi, and Esmeraldas Antbird, Sipia nigricauda. The genus Schistocichla is merged into Myrmelastes. The placeholder Myrmeciza3 is replaced by Hafferia (Isler et al. suggest a further split of two species into Inundicola). Finally, the White-lined Antbird joins Myrmoborus from "Percnostola".
In Drymophilini, the placeholdholder Myrmeciza4 becomes Sciaphylax, while
in Pithyini, I've made one other change, moving Willisornis. This all results in
a gain of two genera.
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.62]
Fabre et al. (2013) have recently studied most Arses and Myiagra
species. These genera have been rearranged accordingly. Although the
Ochre-collared Monarch, Arses insularis, was basal in Arses, their
results suggest the other Arses species boundaries need adjustment, possibly
involving one or more splits.
[Monarchidae, Corvida II, 2.70]
I've recently corrected a number of errors in the phylogenetic trees. Thanks go to Steve Preddy for his careful examination of them.
Fixed inconsistent spelling of duvaucelli for Blue-eared Barbet, Psilopogon duvaucelii.
[Megalaimidae, Piciformes, 2.67]
Based on Mason and Burns (2013) Dolospingus and Oryzoborus
have been merged into Sporophila and Sporophila has been
[Thraupidae, Core Passeroidea V, 2.71]
Cibois et al. (2014) carried out a fairly complete analysis of Ptilinopus,
including most Ptilinopus species. The current arrangement of Ptilinopus
is based on their results. They suggested a six genus treatment that retained
Alectroenas and Drepanoptila. However, this may mean that
Ptilinopus is not monophyletic, and it does not materially solve the
problem of Ptilinopus heterogeneity. I do not recommend it at this time.
[Columbidae, Metaves I, 2.68]
The genera Limicola, Philomachus, and Ereunetes have been
merged into Calidris to match the AOU, BOU, and H&M 4th edition lists.
[Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes, 2.67]
Hosner et al. (2013c) found a previously undiscovered Robsonius species,
the Sierra Madre Ground-Warbler Robsonius thompsoni. I've also adopted
their suggested English names as primary names for the other two Robsonius:
Bicol Ground-Warbler for Robsonius sorsogonensis and
Cordillera Ground-Warbler for Robsonius rabori.
[Locustellidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.73]
I've rearranged the Carpodacini based on Tietze et al. (2013). The species Carpodacus synoicus has been split into Sinai Rosefinch Carpodacus synoicus and Pale Rosefinch Carpodacus stoliczkae. [Fringillidae, 2.64]
The Bare-legged Screech-Owl has a new genus name, Margarobyas.
This is because the old name Gymnoglaux is actually a junior synonym of
Megascops (see Olson and Suárez, 2008; 54th AOU Supplement).
[Strigidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.74]
The original spelling Ptiliogonys has been restored for the
Ptilogonys silky-flycatchers (see Gregory and Dickinson, 2012; 54th
AOU Supplement). This changes the family name to Ptiliogonatidae.
[Ptiliogonatidae, Reguloidea and Bombycilloidea, 2.51]
Now that the latest AOU supplement is available, I've followed the AOU and
Cicero and Koo (2012) to split the Sage Sparrow, Artemisiospiza belli, into two species:
Bell's Sparrow, Artemisiospiza belli, and
Sagebrush Sparrow, Artemisiospiza nevadensis.
[Passerellidae, Core Passeroidea III, 2.62]
The Amazilia hummingbird complex has been rearranged based on
Ornelas et al. (2013). This has simplified the genera used. Some species
limits may need further adjustment in the future, and some members of this
complex are yet to be sequenced (including Trochilus and perhaps
Goldmania and Goethalsia).
[Trochilidae, Apodiformes, 2.67]
I've incorporated one more SACC name change. The English name of "Myrmeciza3" immaculata
is now Blue-lored Antbird (was Andean Immaculate-Antbird)
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.61c]
I've incorporated three recent SACC name changes:
- The English name of Drymophila caudata is now East Andean Antbird (was Long-tailed Antbird).
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.61b]
- The English name of "Myrmeciza3" zeledoni is now Zeledon's Antbird (was Western Immaculate-Antbird).
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.61b]
- All of the Chlorospingus species take the last name Chlorospingus rather than Bush-Tanager.
[Passerellidae, Core Passeroidea III, 2.61b]
Back from Panama (Canopy Tower and Lodge). Saw almost 300 species. My life list now stands at 2646.
Following the 4th edition of the Howard and Moore checklist (Dickinson and Remsen,
2013) I've separated Pogonornis (Billberg 1828,type dubius) from
Lybius. Further, based on Moyle (2004), the genus
Tricholaema is restricted to the Hairy-breasted Barbet. Two former
Tricholaema move to Lybius (Spot-flanked and Black-throated
Barbets). The other three former Tricholaema form the genus
Notopogonius (Roberts 1922, type leucomelas).
[Lybiidae, Piciformes, 2.70]
Added subfamilies and tribes to Cracidae.
[Cracidae, Galliformes, 2.65a]
The Arabian Scops-Owl, Otus pamelae, has been separated from the
African Scops-Owl, Otus senegalensis (Pons et al., 2013).
[Strigidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.73]
The Chinese Wren-babbler, Pnoepyga mutica, has been split from
the Scaly-breasted Wren-babbler, Pnoepyga albiventer (Päckert et al., 2013).
[Pnoepygidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.72]
The Sidamo Lark, Heteromirafra sidamoensis, has been lumped with Archer's Lark,
Heteromirafra archeri (Spottiswoode et al., 2013).
[Alaudidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.71]
I've rearranged the Paridae using Johansson et al. (2013). This has
also included splitting the Caspian Tit, Poecile hyrcanus, from
the Sombre Tit, Poecile lugubris and following their recommendation
to use the additional genera Pardaliparus, Sittiparus,
Machlolophus, and Melaniparus.
[Paridae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.70]
Based on Lutz et al. (2013), the mountain-toucans (Andigena) and
yellow-eared toucanets (Selenidera) have been rearranged with the
Yellow-eared Toucanet itself being designated as "Selenidera".
[Ramphastidae, Piciformes, 2.69]
I've made some changes to the manakins based on Ohlson et al. (2013b).
The genera Ceratopipra, Dixiphia, and Machaeropterus, which had
been lumped in Pipra are restored since under the Ohlson et al. topology,
Machaeropterus and Pipra (in the narrow sense) are in fact clades
(this was not true under the Hackett topology). Further, the newly created genus
Cryptopipo is used for the Green Manakin. Finally, Chloropipo has been moved
and Lepidothrix is better resolved.
[Pipridae, Tyrannida I, 2.55]
Added the recently described Junin Tapaculo, Scytalopus gettyae
(Hosner et al., 2013).
[Rhinocryptidae, Furnariida II, 2.69]
The Geomalia, Geomalia heinrichi, previously listed as a possible sister to
Zoothera, has been moved into Zoothera (Olsson and Alström, 2013).
[Turdidae, Muscicapoidea II, 2.72]
Zappey's Flycatcher, Cyanoptila cumatilis, has been split from the
Blue-and-white Flycatcher, Cyanoptila cyanomelana (Leader and Carey, 2012).
[Muscicapidae, Muscicapoidea II, 2.72]
The yellow-billed Tropeiro Seedeater, Sporophila beltoni, has been split from
the dark-billed Plumbeous Seedeater, Sporophila plumbea (Repenning and Fontana, 2013).
[Thraupidae, Core Passeroidea V, 2.70]
To match IOC, the Singing (virescens), Varied
(versicolor), and Mangrove Honeyeaters (fasciogularis) are
moved from genus Ptilotula to Gavicalis.
[Meliphagidae, Paracorvids, 2.65b]
Rather than keep them all in Ictinaetus, I'm following IOC and H&M 4 in
putting the Long-crested Eagle in Lophaetus and the three spotted eagles in
[Accipitridae, Accipitrimorphae, 2.59]
The fact that the Morningbird is not in Colluricincla causes a
change in the scientific name of the Sooty Shrike-thrush. With
Colluricincla tenebrosa of Hartlaub and Finsch (1868) no longer
using tenebrosa, the Sooty Shrike-thrush retakes the name
tenebrosa (Rothschild 1911) which has priority over umbrina
[Pachycephalidae, Corvida I, 2.71a]
The alternate name Indigo-crowned Quail-Dove is added to
Purple Quail-Dove, Geotrygon purpurata.
[Columbidae, Metaves I, 2.67a]
To conform to IOC changes, the English names of the two
Ceratogymna Wattled-Hornbills become Black-casqued Hornbill and
[Bucerotidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.71a]
A second IOC change is that the Dark-capped Yellow Warbler, Iduna natalensis,
becomes African Yellow-Warbler.
[Acrocephalidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.69a]
A last IOC name change is that the English names of the two
Neocossyphus Rufous-Thrushes becom Red-tailed Ant-Thrush and
White-tailed Ant-Thrush (not to be confused with Antthrushes).
[Turdidae, Muscicapoidea II, 2.71b]
Following H&M 4 (Dickinson and Remsen, 2013) and König and Weick (2008),
the poorly known Congo Bay-Owl has been moved to Tyto from Phodilus.
[Tytonidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.72]
The Solomons Nightjar, Eurostopodus nigripennis, has been split from
the White-throated Nightjar, Eurostopodus mystacalis, and the
New Caledonian Nightjar, Eurostopodus exul has been added based on a specimen
collected in 1939. Both cases are discussed in Cleere (2010). When Gray Nightjar was
previously split, insufficient attention was paid to the its third subspecies.
That taxon is now split as Palau Nightjar, Caprimulgus phalaena (Cleere, 2010).
[Caprimulgidae, Strisores, 2.58]
There are two changes to the list of Ovenbirds, leaving the species total unchanged.
I added the newly discovered Delta Amacuro Softtail, Thripophaga amacurensis
(Hilty et al., 2013). I also lumped the
Plain-breasted Earthcreeper, Upucerthia jelskii, into
Buff-breasted Earthcreeper, Upucerthia validirostris (Areta and Pearman, 2013).
[Furnariidae, Furnariida II, 2.68]
Added the newly discovered Cambodian Tailorbird, Orthotomus chaktomuk
(Mahood et al, 2013).
[Cisticolidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.69]
The recent paper by Fuchs et al. (2013) has led to some changes in the woodpeckers.
The most obvious change is that it seems to settle the conflicts concerning the relationship
(or not) between Chrysocolaptini and Campephilini. They are in fact sisters, in spite of
hybridization confusing the record. I have submerged Chrysocolaptini into Campephilini
as is also done by Dickinson and Remsen (2013). Further, the relationships within
Picini are now better resolved and there is now enough evidence to separate the New World
Dryocopus as Hylatomus.
[Picidae, Piciformes, 2.68]
Dickinson and Remsen (2013) note that Pyrrhulopsis has priority over Prosopeia.
It has been updated.
[Psittacidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.73c]
Alström et al. (2013) recently analyzed most of the larks. Besides
a comprehensive rearrangement of the family, some generic limits have changed.
The Madagascan Lark, Mirafra hova, moved to Eremopterix and
the White-winged Lark, Melanocorypha leucoptera, moved to Alauda.
Additionally, Pseudalaemon has been subsumed in Spizocorys
and the new genus Alaudala has been separated from Calandrella.
[Alaudidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.68]
I've added a box with the alternate albatross taxonomoy used in the
Howard and Moore checklist (Dickinson and Remsen 2013). There has been considerable
controversy about whether some of the albatross taxa represent biological species
or only phylogenetic species. There's weak evidence for regarding many of
them as biological species, but it is only weak evidence.
[Diomedeidae, Pelecanae II, 2.70]
I've added a section, “45 Orders”, concerning the higher
level organization of the TiF tree. I'd been thinking about doing something
of this sort for a while, particularly after the McCormack et al. (2012) and
Yuri et al. (2013) papers. With the Howard and Moore list (Dickinson and Remsen, 2013)
adopting a similar arrangement and the recent appearance of Kimball et al.
(2013), this seems like a good time.
[The 45 Orders]
The Ameline Swiftlet, Aerodramus amelis, has been split from the Uniform Swiftlet,
Aerodramus vanikorensis. Also, the Three-toed Swiftlet has been moved
to Hydrochous. See Price et al. (2005). I've also rearranged Aerodramus
to better reflect Price et al. (2005).
[Apodidae, Apodiformes, 2.66]
The new Howard and Moore checklist (Dickinson and Remsen, 2013) uses
Zapornia for the rail clade that I had labeled Limnocorax.
They are correct that Zapornia has priority, and I have updated the
TiF list accordingly.
[Rallidae, Pelecanae I, 2.61]
Corrected position of Pied Honeyeater, Certhionyx variegatus (was erroneously
listed within Pycnopygius).
[Meliphagidae, Paracorvids, 2.65]
Based on Dumbacher and Fleischer (2001), the Variable Pitohui has been
split into three species:
Southern Variable Pitohui, Pitohui uropygialis,
Raja Ampat Pitohui, Pitohui cerviniventris,
and Northern Variable Pitohui, Pitohui kirhocephalus.
[Oriolidae, Corvida I, 2.71]
The order within Pheucticus has been updated based on Pulgarín-R et al. (2013). I have split the Orange-colored Grosbeak, Pheucticus aurantiacus, from the (Mexican) Yellow Grosbeak, Pheucticus chrysopeplus. The Orange-colored Grosbeak is monotypic, distinctly orange, and can be found in Chiapis, Mexico and Guatemala.
There is a weaker case for splitting Pheucticus
uropygialis from the Black-backed Grosbeak, Pheucticus aureoventris
(monotypic) and I have not done so. There's not an identification problem. The rump is variously
yellow or mottled in the uropygialis group, black in
aureoventris. However, the genetic distance is much smaller here and there
are questions about whether crissalis (part of the uropygialis
group) interbreeds with chrysogaster in Ecuador. It could be that
this complex is best treated as one species rather than three.
[Cardinalidae, Core Passeroidea V, 2.70]
The Asian Barbets, Megalaimidae, have been rearranged based on the species tree in den Tex and Leonard (2013). Moreover, I have adopted 4 of their recommended splits. I could not find any reasonable English names to use, and have accordingly given them temporary names. Who knows? Some of them might even stick.
The splits are: (1) The Sooty Barbet, Caloramphus hayii is split from Brown Barbet, Caloramphus fuliginosus. (2) Blue-eared Barbet, Psilopogon duvaucelii is split from Horsfield's Barbet, Psilopogon australis. The later is considered monotypic. Since cyanotis and duvaucelii are thought to hybridize in Thailand, the remaining races are assigned to species duvaucelii. (3) The Golden-faced Barbet, Psilopogon chrysopsis (monotypic), is split from Golden-whiskered Barbet, Psilopogon chrysopogon. (4) Finally, the local Kra endemic Kra Barbet, Psilopogon chersonesus, is split from the Blue-throated Barbet, Psilopogon asiatica.
Since Psilopogon auricularis and Psilopogon franklinii are believed to
hybridize in Vietnam (Annam) and nearby Laos, I will defer judgment on this proposed
[Megalaimidae, Piciformes, 2.67]
Sicalis has been rearranged based on Ryan et al. (2013) and
the Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch has been removed from Sicalis. As there
is no available genus name, it is being designated "Sicalis".
Note that the TiF list already had the correct treatment of the
Melanodera/Rowettia/Nesospiza clade, which is the main subject of
Ryan et al. (2013).
[Thraupidae, Core Passeroidea V, 2.69]
Banks et al. (2013) established the name Zentrygon for the
not really Geotrygon quail-doves I had previously designated as "Geotrygon".
They also established the genus Leptotyrgon for the Olive-backed Quail-Dove.
I have also adjusted the order of some of the Zenaidini. I mostly follow Banks et al.
for this, but there are some minor differences due to different beliefs about
where the untested species fit in, and a simpler way of forming
a list from a tree.
[Columbidae, Metaves I, 2.67]
The Northern Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis, has been split into the
Atlantic Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis and the Pacific Fulmar,
Fulmarus rodgersii, based on Kerr and Dove (2013), who estimated
their most recent common ancestor ocurred about 3 million years ago.
[Procellariidae, Pelecanae II, 2.69]
The Grayish Saltator has been split into three species based on Chaves et al. (2013).
The three species are Middle American Saltator, Saltator grandis
(all Middle American races); Plumbeous Saltator, Saltator plumbeus
(presumed to include plumbeus and brewsteri); and Grayish
Saltator, Saltator coerulescens (all other races). There may be
more than three species here. In particular, plumage suggests that
Brewster's may need to be separated from Plumbeous, but there is currently
no genetic data. Now that all saltators have been sequenced, I've adjusted
the order of the saltators.
[Thraupidae, Core Passeroidea V, 2.68]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.87.
The genera Ammoperdix and Caloperdix have been moved based on
Wang et al. (2013). The placement of Rhizothera follows H&M4.
The order within Phasianini has been slightly adjusted.
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.65]
I've decided to follow part of Ohlson et al.'s (2013a) recommendations, and recognize 6 new families in the Tyrannida. These include the Sharpbill (Oxyruncidae) and Royal Flycatchers and allies (Onychorhynchidae), previously included in Tityridae, and the Piprites (Pipritidae), Spadebills (Platyrinchidae), Many-colored Rush Tyrant (Tachuridae) and Mionectine Flycatchers (Rhynchocyclidae), all separated from Tyrannidae. The basic point is that each forms a separate and very deep clade (ca. 25-30 million years old).
There has also been some rearrangement of certain genera (e.g., in the Elaeniini)
as Ohlson et al. (2013a) resolved some of the differences between Ohlson et al. (2008)
and Tello et al. (2009) by using a combined data set.
[Tyrannida I, 2.55]
[Tyrannida II, 2.64]
I've started to look though first volume of the new Howard and Moore checklist (Dickinson & Remsen, 2013). I must say that I've very happy with the phylogenetic tree on pp. xlii-xliii. It means I can leave the higher-level order alone, at least for the non-passerines.
Working through H&M 4 will take some time, but I have noticed some minor changes in the Psittaciformes. Three of the black-cockatoos have been moved to the genus Zanda (Mathews 1913, type bauinii) due to substantial separation between them and the Calyptorhynchus black-cockatoos. White et al. (2011) estimate the most recent common ancestor at about 15 million years ago. Interesting, the current Zanda diversity appeared very recently, whereas the split between the two Calyptorhynchus is of much longer standing.
The names of two tribes have been corrected. The informal Bolborhynchini
has been replaced by Amoropsittacini (Brereton 1963) based on a junior name for
Psilopsiagon aymara. Although established before 1961, the term Amazonini
never came into common use, and does not replace the older name Androglossini
(Sundevall 1872), based on a junior synomyn of Amazona.
[Psittacidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.73b]
The scientific name of the Orange River Francolin is corrected to Scleroptila gutturalis,
which has priority over Scleroptila levaillantoides.
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.64a]
There is some uncertainty about whether the Ua Pou Monarch, Pomarea mira, is extinct.
This is now reflected in the list.
[Monarchidae, Corvida II, 2.69c]
The scientific name of the Island Leaf-Warbler is corrected to Seicercus maforensis,
which has priority over Seicercus poliocephalus.
[Phylloscopidae Sylvioidea II, 2.70a]
The scientific name of the Tibetan Serin has been corrected to Chionomitris thibetana
Voelker et al. (2013) have analyzed the Catharus clade (Ridgwayia
using 2 mitochondrial and 8 nuclear genes. The clade has been rearranged to
reflect their results.
[Turdidae, Muscicapoidea II, 2.71]
A recent trip to Spain brought my life list to 2590.
Portions of Ohlson et al. (2013a) have been incorporated into the TiF
checklist. This affects Tyranninae and Fluvicolinae (more of Ohlson et al.
will be used later). The genus Tumbezia has been merged into
Ochthoeca. Further, Colonia and Myiophobus are now
treated as Incertae sedis within Fluvicolinae.
[Tyrannidae, Tyrannida II, 2.63]
I changed the English name of Lanius meridionalis to Iberian Gray Shrike since
it is monotypic in the TiF list.
[Laniidae, Corvida II, 2.69b]
The specific epithet of Luzon Sunbird has been corrected to Aethopyga jefferyi
[Nectariniidae, Basal Passeroidea, 2.61b]
The csv files have been updated to version 2.86.
The genus name Nyctastes has been corrected to Nystactes (spotted by J. Penhallurick).
[Bucconidae, Piciformes, 2.66a]
Urantowka et al. (2013) found that the Blue-crowned Parakeet is sister to
Diopsittaca. I've placed it in the monotypic genus
Thectocercus (Ridgway 1912).
[Psittacidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.73]
I made some additional gender corrections thanks to Peter Kovalik.
- Limnocorax is masculine, affecting 6 species [Rallidae, 2.60a]
- Smithiglaux and Taenioglaux are feminine, affecting 5 species [Strigidae, 2.71b]
- nenday is invariable, thus the Nanday Parakeet is Aratinga nenday [Psittacidae, 2.72a]
- The Plumbeous Water-Redstart is Phoenicurus fuliginosus, not fuliginosa [Muscicapidae, 2.70a]
The Wallcreeper is family Tichodromidae, not Tichodromididae. It was
originally established as the subfamily Tichodromia by Swainson, 1827
(Swainson did not use modern subfamily endings).
[Tichodromidae, Certhioidea, 2.54b]
The accentors have been rearranged based on Drovetski et al. (2013).
[Prunellidae, Core Passeroidea I, 2.59]
Five species have been removed from Streptopelia and
placed in Spilopelia (Laughing and Spotted Doves) and
Nesoenas (Malagasy Turtle-Dove, Pink Pigeon, and Rodrigues Pigeon).
Although the latter two are often placed in Nesoenas, the
Malagasy Turtle-Dove is usually in Streptopelia. This change is
based on Johnson et al. (2001), Cheke (2005) and Gonzalez et al.
[Columbidae, Metaves I, 2.66]
There is one genus spelling correction spotted by John Penhallurick:
Baikal Teal, Sibirionetta formosa
[Anatidae, Paleognaths and Anseriformes, 2.61a].
Peter Kovalik has contributed a number of gender corrections:
- Analisoma and Edolisoma are neuter, affecting 10 species [Campephagidae, 2.70a]
- Spotted Thrush-Babbler becomes Illadopsis turdina [Pellorneidae, 2.69a]
- Red-collared Babbler becomes Turdoides rufocincta [Leiothrichidae, 2.69a]
- Apo Myna becomes Goodfellowia miranda [Sturnidae, 2.53a]
- Tristan Thrush becomes Turdus eremita [Turdidae, 2.70a]
- Thick-billed Flowerpecker becomes Pachyglossa agilis [Dicaeidae, 2.61a]
- Oahu Amakihi becomes Chlorodrepanis flava [Fringillidae, 2.63b]
The Mistletoe Tyrannulet, Zimmerius parvus, Specious Tyrannulet, Zimmerius improbus, (inc tamae), and Venezuelan Tyrannulet, Zimmerius petersi, are split from Paltry Tyrannulet, Zimmerius vilissimus. See Rheindt et al. (2013).
The English name of Elaenia olivina has been changed to Tepui Elaenia from Roraiman Elaenia to match the IOC list. The Chilean Elaenia, Elaenia chilensis, is treated as a distinct species based on Rheindt et al. (2008b, 2009a). Further, the Hispaniolan Elaenia, Elaenia cherriei, has been split from the Greater Antillean Elaenia, Elaenia fallax, based on genetics (see Rheindt et al., 2008b) and distinctive vocalizations. The restricted Greater Antillean Elaenia is then endemic to Jamaica (note that there's already a Jamaican Elaenia).
Based on Garrido et al. (2009), the Loggerhead Kingbird has been split into
three species: Western Loggerhead Kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus,
Hispaniolan Kingbird, Tyrannus gabbii,
and Puerto Rican Kingbird, Tyrannus taylori.
[Tyrannidae, Tyrannida II, 2.62]
The Violet-crowned Woodnymph, Thalurania colombica, and
Green-crowned Woodnymph, Thalurania fannyi, have been merged
into Crowned Woodnymph, Thalurania colombica. See
SACC proposal #558.
Note that AOU's NACC has not acted on this yet.
[Trochilidae, Apodiformes, 2.65]
The Chestnut-capped Puffbird is placed in genus Cyphos (Spix 1824)
rather than Argicus (Cabanis and Heine 1863) because Cyphos
is not preoccupied by Cyphus under current ICZN rules.
[Bucconidae, Piciformes, 2.66]
There seems to be insufficient reason to consider Northern Parrotbill,
Paradoxornis polivanovi, as a separate species from Reed Parrotbill,
Paradoxornis heudei, so they are merged as Reed Parrotbill,
Paradoxornis heudei (see Penhallurick and Robson, 2009; Yeung et
[Paradoxornithidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.69]
I've added a link for Peter Kovalik's spreadsheet that compares 5 world lists: IOC 3.3, Clements 6.7, TiF 2.85, BirdLife 5, and IBC/HBW.
I've made some minor adjustments to the order in Arenariinae (Turnstones and Stints)
that brings it closer to the proposed AOU ordering.
[Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes, 2.66]
Prompted by a discussion with John Penhallurick, I've added a discussion
of why I don't use Zosterops rendovae for either the Solomons or
[Zosteropidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.68a]
Based on Nylander et al. (2008), the Chinese Blackbird, Turdus
mandarinus, including the subspecies sowerbyi, but not
intermedius, has been split from the Eurasian Blackbird, Turdus
merula, and the Taiwan Thrush, Turdus niveiceps, has been split
from the Island Thrush, Turdus poliocephalus. I've also done some
rearrangement of the Olive Thrush complex.
[Turdidae, Muscicapoidea II, 2.70]
The Hornbills (Bucerotidae) have been reordered based on the of Gonzalez et al. (2013),
which includes all hornbill species. The Black Dwarf-Hornbill, Tockus hartlaubi, moves
to the monotypic Horizocerus. The Sulawesi Hornbill, Penelopides
exarhatus, moves to Cranobrontes (Riley 1921). However, since
exarhatus is the type of Rhabdotorrhinus (Meyer and Wiglesworth 1898),
the whole genus now takes the name Rhabdotorrhinus. I have also followed
Hübner et al. (2003) and Gonzalez et al. in splitting Tockus into
the whistlers (Lophoceros) and cluckers (Tockus). Note the
genus name Lophoceros (Ehrenberg 1833) has priority over their suggested
Rhynchaceros (Gloger 1842).
[Bucerotidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.71]
Today's changes focus on the superfamily Malaconotiodea, which has been the subject of a recent paper by Fuchs et al. (2012b). I've changed the family order to follow Fuchs et al.
The Mottled Whistler (Rhagologus) has
move to Artamidae, as sister to the boatbills (with some uncertainty).
The genus Gymnorhina (Australian Magpie) has been merged with Cracticus
and Strepera has been reordered (see Kearns et al., 2013). The
Black Butcherbird has been split into New Guinea Black-Butcherbird,
Cracticus quoyi, and Australian Black-Butcherbird, Cracticus
spaldingi (see Kearns et al., 2011) while the Silver-backed and
Black-backed Butcherbirds (Cracticus argenteus and mentalis)
have been lumped with the Gray Butcherbird, Cracticus torquatus
(see Kearns et al, 2013).
[Artamidae, Corvida I, 2.70]
The order of genera in Malaconotidae has been updated using Fuchs et al. (2012b).
[Malaconotidae, Corvida I, 2.70]
Based on Fuchs et al. (2012b), the genus Dyaphorophyia has been
restored, but left some taxa in Platysteira. The new Dyaphorophyia
includes three wattle-eyes (tonsa, hormophora, castanea).
[Platysteiridae, Corvida I, 2.70]
In the Vangidae, I've placed the Philentomas in a separate subfamily, Philentominae
and reordered the species in Xenopirostris and Newtonia based on
Jønsson et al. (2012).
[Vangidae, Corvida I, 2.70]
Phabinae has been demoted to a tribe as the papers by Fulton et al. (2012) and Gibb and Penny (2010) have raised questions about whether the Pereira et al. (2007) topology is entirely correct. However, Pereira et al. seem to have the best dataset for examining the overall topology, and I continue to generally follow it.
I've used Moyle et al. (2013) to rearrange Phabini.
This includes returning Pampusanna to Gallicolumba
and separating the Crested Pigeon in the genus Ocyphaps.
[Columbidae, Metaves I, 2.64]
The order of the species in the Lesser Whitethroat complex has been slightly
adjusted based on Olsson et al. (2013). Along with this comes some reassignment of
subspecies to better reflect the genetics.
[Sylviidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.68]
Added the newly discovered Rinjani Scops-Owl, Otus jolandae, to the list.
See Sangster et al. (2013).
[Strigidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.70]
Based on Hosner et al. (2013a) Aethopyga has been rearranged and five additional species are recognized:
- Crimson Sunbird, Aethopyga siparaja, is split from Magnificent Sunbird, Aethopyga magnifica.
- Maroon-naped Sunbird, Aethopyga guimarasensis, is split from Flaming Sunbird, Aethopyga flagrans.
- Bohol Sunbird, Aethopyga decorosa, and Luzon Sunbird, Aethopyga jeffreyi, are split from Metallic-winged Sunbird, Aethopyga pulcherrima.
- Tboli Sunbird, Aethopyga tibolii, is split from Apo Sunbird, Aethopyga boltoni.
[Nectariniidae, Basal Passeroidea, 2.61]
Three recently extinct species added to the IOC list in version 3.3 have been also added to the TiF list.
- Hawkins's Rail, Gallirallus hawkinsi. See Olson (1975), Cooper and Tennyson (2004), and Tennyson (2004). [Rallidae, Pelecanae I, 2.60]
- Bermuda Saw-whet Owl, Aegolius gradyi. See Olson (2012). [Strigidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.69]
- Bermuda Towhee, Pipilo naufragus. See Olson and Wingate (2012). [Passerellidae, Core Passeroidea III, 2.61]
The order within the tinamous has been changed to follow
Bertelli and Porzecanski (2004) more closely. Thanks to Keith Bennett for catching
[Tinamiformes, Paleognaths & Anseriformes, 2.61]
The csv files have been updated to version 2.85.
The scientific name of the Mascarene Coot is corrected to Fulica newtonii
(was F. newtoni).
[Rallidae, Pelecanae I, 2.59b]
The scientific name of the Hooded Dotterel is corrected to Thinornis cucullatus
(was T. rubricollis).
[Charadriidae, Charadriiformes, 2.65a]
Although the SACC is still deliberating, some progress has been made toward
replacing the temporary names for the various Schiffornis species.
Thus Schiffornis olivacea become Guianan Schiffornis (was Olivaceous Schiffornis)
and Schiffornis stenorhyncha becomes Russet-winged Schiffornis
(was Rufous-winged Schiffornis).
[Tityridae, Tyrannida I, 2.54a]
The following English names are changed to match IOC changes.
- The alternate name Eastern Curlew has been removed from Far Eastern Curlew, Numenius madagascariensis (Scolopacidae).
- Tarictic Hornbill, Penelopides panini, becomes Visayan Hornbill (Bucerotidae).
- Yodeling Honeyeater, Gymnomyza viridis, becomes Giant Honeyeater (Meliphagidae).
- Brown-throated Treecreeper, Certhia discolor, becomes Sikkim Treecreeper (Certhiidae).
The Hapalopsittaca tree is resolved and the position of
Graydidascalus and Alipiopsitta has been adjusted following
Quintero et al. (2013).
[Psittacidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.72]
In anticipation of some with the next edition of the IOC list, I've merged
Erythrina, Haematospiza, and Chaunoproctus into Carpodacus.
This means that all of the Carpodacini rosefinches are now in genus Carpodacus
(there are also two rosefinches in Pyrrhulini).
I've also merged Neospiza, Dendrospiza,
Pseudochloroptila, and Ochrospiza into Crithagra on the grounds
that they are weakly differentiated.
There is no change in the linear order.
[Fringillidae, Core Passeroidea II, 2.63]
The genus Polyplectron has been rearranged based on Davison et al. (2012) and
Kimball et al. (2011).
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.64]
I have finally decided how to incorporate Barker et al. (2013). This was complicated by the fact that, even though this is the most complete analysis of the nine-primaried oscines, it still leaves many unanswered questions. There is a lot of disagreement between the gene trees, likely due to rapid speciation. This means that much uncertainly still remains. The highlights follow.
Barker et al. recommended using several new families. I've adopted two of those, establishing Rhodinocichlidae for the Rosy Thrush-Tanager, Rhodinocichla rosea, and elevating and expanding Phaenicophilinae for the Palm-Tanagers and some other West Indian species. However, I've also declined to follow several other recommendations. Thus Nesospingus and Spindalis are included in Phaenicophilidae rather than getting their own families, the Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria virens, is moved to Icteridae as a subfamily, rather than getting its own family, and both Zeledonia and Teretistris are left unclassified near Icteridae and Parulidae rather than getting their own families. Finally, the family I previously referred to as Lamprospinzidae now has an official name: Mitrospingidae.
Some reorganization of the families was then needed to fit all this in. The revised Emberizoidae look like this:
|TiF Emberizoidae Phylogeny|
Several other taxa have been shuffled around above the generic level:
- The Olive-green Tanager, Orthogonys chloricterus, has moved to Mitrospingidae from Thraupidae.
- The new tribe Incaspizini is formed from Incaspiza, Porphyrospiza, and Rhopospina, all formerly in Poospizini. Incaspizini is basal in the Thraupinae branch.
- The tribes in Dacninae have been reordered according to size (except Conirostrini and Diglossini) as I no longer think we have any solid information about their relationships, other than being in the same subfamily.
- The Coal-crested Finch, Charitospiza eucosma, gets its own tribe Charitispizini. It had been Incertae sedis in Thraupidae.
- The Blue-backed Tanager, Cyanicterus cyanicterus, and Scarlet-throated Tanager, Compsothraupis loricata have moved to Nemosiini. Both had been Incertae sedis in Thraupidae. As a result, the genus Compsothraupis is merged into Sericossypha.
- The Black-masked Finch, Coryphaspiza melanotis, moved to Emberizoidini. It had been Incertae sedis in Thraupidae.
- The Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak, Parkerthraustes humeralis, Brown Tanager, Orchesticus abeillei, and Plushcap, Catamblyrhynchus diadema are now in Hemithraupini. The grosbeak had been in Saltatorinae, the other two had been Incertae sedis in Thraupidae.
- Both Creurgops move to Tachyphonini from Poospizini.
Various other changes have been included, including a reordering of the blackbird tribes and subfamilies based on Price et al. (2010) and Barker et al. (2013). This version is a more sensible arrangement, with all the caciques and oropendolas grouped together again. Most of the other changes involve minor changes in order. Also, thanks go to Liam Hughes who sent me some corrections for subgeneric names in Emberiza. These have been incorporated in the current version.
These changes affect three files: