The information below includes the date and a brief description of each significant change, a link to the relevant page, and that page's new version number. Neither minor spelling corrections nor additions to the references are noted on this page.
I have integrated Nagy and Tökölyi (2014) into the discussion of Acciptridae. This lead to a comprehensive reexamination of Acciptiridae, culminating in a complete species tree. Parts of it remain a bit hypothetical, but much of it is fairly solid. The subfamily and tribal structure has been altered a bit. The Hieraspizinae have been demoted to a tribe and merged into the now-recognized Melieraxini (Accipitrinae). Harpaginae has also been demoted into a tribe with Buteoninae. The milvine kites and sea eagles are recognized as tribe Milvini (Buteoninae). The crested goshawks have been promoted to a subfamily, Lophospizinae.
Additionally, Asturina has been merged into Buteo and
several African sparrowhawks have been separated from Tachyspiza
as Aerospiza. Finally, there are a number of minor
[Accipitridae, Accipitrimorphae, 2.60]
The order within Ficedula now follows Moyle et al. (2014), which corrected
some problems in Outlaw and Voelker (2006a). Also, I have accepted the split of
the Philippine subspecies of the Snowy-browed Flycatcher, Ficedula hyperythra.
It turns out they are only distantly related to the nominate. Although
not all subspecies were sampled, it seems likely that the non-Philippine
subspecies form one clade, and the Phillipine subspecies another. The
Phillipine group is recognized as a separate species, Ficedula
luzoniensis. The English name presents something of a problem.
Philippine Snowy-browed Flycatcher has been suggested, but is a poor
choice as they are far from being sister species, and moreover, some of
the Philippine subspecies lack the white brow. An alternate name for
the Snow-bellied complex is Thicket Flycatcher, and I have pressed that
into service for Ficedula luzoniensis.
[Muscicapidae, Muscicapoidea II, 2.75]
The position of Tschudi's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus chunchotambo, has been
adjusted based on Sousa-Neves et al. (2013).
[Furnariidae, Furnariida II, 2.76]
Gutiérrez-Pinto et al. (2012) found that the Santa Marta
Warbler, formerly Basileuterus basilicus, belongs in
Myiothlypis as Myiothlypis basilica. (I had overlooked this previously.)
[Parulidae, Core Passeroidea IV, 2.66]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.97.
The Falconidae have been rearranged based on Fuchs et al. (2014).
They found that the two species of Polihierax are not
closely related, with the Pygmy Falcon closer to Microhierax and the
White-rumped Falcon nearer Falco. Accordingly, the White-rumped Falcon
is placed in the monotypic genus Neohierax (Swann, 1922).
To further emphasize the deep division here, I've recognized two tribes
within Falconinae: Polihieracini and Falconini.
[Falconidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.76]
The Cotingidae have been rearranged based on Berv and Prum (2014).
The genus Perissocephalus merged into Cephalopterus and
Tijuca has been merged into Lipaugus. I've also adjusted the
subfamily structure and added tribes within Cotinginae.
[Cotingidae, Tyrannida I, 2.60]
I've adjusted the position of Doria's Goshawk, Megatriorchis doriae, and of Henicopernis based on Barrowclough et al. (2014). Further, Erythrotriorchis may eventually need to be submerged into Tachyspiza.
The repositioning of Henicopernis allows me to separate
Gypaetinae (African Vultures and Harrier-Hawks) and Perninae
(Bazas, Honey-Buzzards, and allies).
[Accipitridae, Accipitrimorphae, 2.60]
Due to a deep genetic division found by Joseph et al. (2014), all but
three Meliphaga have been moved to Microptilotis (Mathews
1912, type gracilis), even though all but the three streaked
species (albilineatus, fordianus and reticulatus)
are very similar to the three Meliphaga.
[Meliphagidae, Paracorvids, 2.69]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.96.
Based on Maurício et al. (2014), the Bahian Mouse-colored
Tapaculo, Scytalopus gonzagai, has been split from the
Mouse-colored Tapaculo, Scytalopus speluncae. For now, the latter takes the
name Common Mouse-colored Tapaculo. This may change once the SACC decides on
I've also slightly adjusted the position of the Rock Tapaculo to better conform to
Mata et al. (2009).
[Rhinocryptidae, Furnariida II, 2.75]
Based on Bravo et al. (2014), Myrmochanes has been submerged
into Myrmotherula, and Stymphalornis has been submerged
into Formicivora. Epinecrophylla and Myrmotherula have
been rearranged. As Myrmopagis proved paraphyletic, it has been
divided into Myrmopagis, Myrmopagis2, and
Myrmopagis3. Finally, Ihering's Antwren, Myrmopagis
iheringi (aka Myrmotherula iheringi) and Narrow-billed Antwren,
Formicivora iheringi have been placed in Neorhopias.
Since F. iheringi has priority, M. iheringi takes a new name,
based on the subspecies heteropterus. This may be split (see
Miranda et al., 2013), in which case the new subspecies name
oreni would be promoted. Note that N. h. iheringi needs a
new name, but it would be at the bottom of the priority list.
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.68]
The English name of Psilopogon chersonesus has been changed to the
IOC name, Turquoise-throated Barbet (was Kra Barbet).
[Megalaimidae, Anomalogonates II, 2.73a]
The Oreoicinae and Cinclosomatinae have been promoted to families, and
Falcunculidae has been separated from Cinclosomatidae.
The jewel-babblers have been moved to Cinclosomatidae from Psophodidae (it was an
error to not move them earlier). These three families and Pachycephalidae are
grouped as the superfamily Pachycephaloidea.
[Oreoicidae, Corvida I, 2.78]
[Falcunculidae, Corvida I, 2.78]
[Cinclosomatidae, Corvida I, 2.78]
[Pachycephalidae, Corvida I, 2.78]
[Psophodidae, Corvida I, 2.78]
Slager et al. (2014) has prompted a number of changes in the Vireonidae.
The Vireos have been rearranged and subfamilies have been added. The
Golden Vireo moves to Pachysylvia. The Red-fronted Greenlet,
"Hylophilus" rubrifrons, has been split from Tawny-crowned
Greenlet, "Hylophilus" ochraceiceps. The Central American Vireo,
Vireo notius (inc. montanus), has been split from
Plumbeous Vireo, Vireo plumbeus, and Warbling Vireo, Vireo
gilvus, has been split into the monotypic Eastern Warbling-Vireo,
Vireo gilvus, and Western Warbling-Vireo, Vireo
swainsoni. The text also includes discussion of some potential
[Vireonidae, Corvida I, 2.78]
The Troupials have been reordered based on Powell et al. (2014).
[Icteridae, Core Passeroidea IV, 2.65]
After some consideration, the Rallus rails have been reordered. I've
also added a table to clarify which subspecies of the Clapper/King complex have
been genetically tested. Finally, I take note of some unassigned members of
the complex from southern Central America.
[Rallidae, Pelecanae I, 2.65]
The Black-backed Butcherbird, Cracticus mentalis,
and Silver-backed Butcherbird, Cracticus argenteus, have been resplit from
Gray Butcherbird, Cracticus torquatus, based on Kearns et al. (2014).
[Artamidae, Corvida I, 2.77]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.95.
To better match the changes to the AOU list, several English names have been
slightly modified. The Black-Hawks are now Black Hawks, and the primary and
alternate English names of both Thalassarche cauta and
Lonchura punctulata have been switched.
[Accipitridae, Accipitrimorphae, 2.59c]
[Diomedeidae, Pelecanae II, 2.75a]
[Estrildidae, Core Passeroidea I, 2.59a]
The often-used name Peristerinae (Reichenbach, 1850) is not available for the
American Ground-Doves as it is based on the genus Peristera
(Swainson 1827), which is a junior homonym of the mollusc genus
Peristera (Rafinesque 1815). The genus Peristera (Swainson
1827) was replaced by Claravis (Oberholser 1899). Richmond then
used it to establish the subfamily Claravinae in 1917. I've replaced
Peristerinae by Claravinae. Thanks to Norbert Bahr for pointing this out.
[Columbidae, Metaves I, 2.69a]
Based on Maley (2012) and Maley and Brumfield (2013), King Rail, Rallus
elegans, has been split into King Rail, Rallus elegans
(elegans and ramsdeni), and the monotypic Aztec Rail,
Rallus tenuirostris of central Mexico. Further, Clapper Rail,
Rallus longirostris, has been split into Clapper Rail, Rallus
crepitans, (Caribbean and eastern North America: crepitans,
saturatus, waynei, scottii, insularum,
pallidus, grossi, belizensis, coryi,
leucophaeus, and caribaeus), Ridgway's Rail, Rallus
obsoletus, (California and western Mexico: obsoletus,
levipes, yumanensis, rhizophorae, and
beldingi), and Mangrove Rail, Rallus longirostris, (South
America: phelpsi, margaritae, pelodramus,
longirostris, crassirostris, and cypereti).
[Rallidae, Pelecanae I, 2.64]
The Rio Negro Gnatcatcher, Polioptila facilis,
and Para Gnatcatcher, Polioptila paraensis, are split from
the Guianan Gnatcatcher, Polioptila guianensis. Also, the
newly described Inambari Gantcatcher, Polioptila attenboroughi,
is added to the list. See Whitney and Alonso (2005) and Whittaker et al. (2013).
I also took the opportunity to rearrange the gnatcatchers a bit.
[Polioptilidae, Certhioidea, 2.57]
Based on McKay et al. (2014), the
Chestnut-bellied Tit, Sittiparus castaneoventris, and
Iriomote Tit, Sittiparus olivaceus, have been separated from
Varied Tit, Sittiparus varius. The case for olivaceus is
rather marginal. However, Owston's Tit, Sittiparus owstoni, was
found to be embedded in the remaining portion of the varius
complex and is not recognized, contra McKay et al. (2014).
[Paridae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.79]
The scientific name of the Cape White-eye has been changed to Zosterops virens
(was capensis). Without a first reviser action, both
virens and capensis would have equal priority. I'm not
sure whether Moreau (1957) was the first reviser, but he certaintly considered
virens and capensis conspecific (as Z. virens) and
Z. pallidus a separate species. (Both have often been subsumed in
pallidus, which has priority over them.)
[Zosteropidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.75]
The Red-legged Cormorant is so genetically distant and so distinct that I have moved
it to Poikilocarbo. For the rest of the cormorants, I wait to see if the
Kennedy and Spencer recommendations (2014) gain any traction.
[Phalacrocoracidae, Pelecanae II, 2.75]
A reconsideration of Voelker et al. (2010b) led to a slight adjustment in the
linear order for Laniarius. Further, the tree has finally been updated
and the hyphens have been removed from the Sooty Boubous. Note that the split
recommended by Nguembock (2014) has not been adopted at this time as the evidence
presented is pretty weak (claimed clinal variation, ambiguous genetic distance,
minuscule sample size).
[Malaconotidae, Corvida I, 2.76]
Long-tailed Pipit, Anthus longicaudatus, has been lumped into
Buffy Pipit, Anthus vaalensis, and
Kimberley Pipit, Anthus pseudosimilis, has been lumped into
African Pipit, Anthus cinnamomeus. See Davies and Peacock (2014).
[Motacillidae, Core Passeroidea II, 2.67]
Based on d'Horta et al., (2013)
the Dusky Leaftosser, Sclerurus obscurior has been split into three species:
Dusky Leaftosser, Sclerurus obscurior (monotypic),
Andean Leaftosser, Sclerurus andinus (monotypic), and
Amazonian Leaftosser, Sclerurus macconnelli
(peruvianus, macconnelli, and bahiae)
See also SACC Proposal #603,
which currently has 6 votes for subproposal B.
[Furnariidae, Furnariida II, 2.74]
The Ardeinae have been rearranged based on Zhou et al. (2014).
[Ardeidae, Pelecanae II, 2.74]
Based on Rodrigues et al. (2013) and SACC Proposal #620, the Lineated Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes albolineatus, has been is split into 5 species. The others are:
- Duida Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes duidae;
- Inambari Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fatimalimae (new taxon);
- Rondonia Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus (includes madeirae);
- Layard's Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes layardi.
[Furnariidae, Furnariida II, 2.73]
The bitterns have been rearranged based on Päckert et al. (2014). I've
also added subfamilies to the Ardeidae.
[Ardeidae, Pelecanae II, 2.73]
The Taiwan Bamboo-Partridge, Bambusicola sonorivox, has been split from
the Chinese Bamboo-Partridge, Bambusicola thoracicus. See Hung et al. (2014).
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.69]
The distinctive Yunnan Parrotbill, Sinosuthora ricketti,
has been split from the Brown-winged Parrotbill, Sinosuthora brunnea.
See Yeung et al. (2011) for genetic support and Wright et al. (2014) for photos.
[Paradoxornithidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.74]
Based on Sun et al. (2014), Galloperdix has been moved to
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.69]
I've added species trees for several Coraciiforme families:
Bee-eaters (Meropidae), Todies (Todidae), Motmots (Momotidae), and part of
the Kingfishers (Alcedinidae). As a consequence of this review, the Bee-eaters
have been rearranged to better match Marks et al. (2007) and there have
been some some minor adjustments to the Kingfishers.
[Coraciiformes, Anomalogonates I, 2.76]
I've also added species trees for the Jacamars (Galbulidae) and Puffbirds (Bucconidae). This led to some minor changes in the linear order for both the Jacamars and Puffbirds (Witt, 2004). Further, I have split the Spot-tailed Jacamar, Galbula rufoviridis (including heterogyna), from the Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Galbula ruficauda. See Witt (2004). [Galbuli, Anomalogonates II, 2.73]
Added the newly discovered (and possibly extinct)
Cryptic Treehunter, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti.
See Mazar Barnett and Buzzetti (2014) and Claramunt (2014b).
[Furnariidae, Furnariida II, 2.72]
The White-tailed Tityra, Tityra leucura, was long known only from
a single specimen collected in 1829 and was thought to be a form of
Black-crowned Tityra, until its rediscovery by Whittaker in 2006.
Whittaker (2008) makes the case that it is a separate species.
[Tityridae, Tyrannida I, 2.59]
Campina Jay, Cyanocorax hafferi, is a recent discovery, having been described
by Cohn-Haft et al. (2013).
[Corvidae, Corvida II, 2.73]
The Grand Cayman Bullfinch, Melopyrrha taylori, has been split from
the Cuban Bullfinch, Melopyrrha nigra (see Garrido et al., 2014).
They differ in plumage, morphology, size, and song.
[Thraupidae, Core Passeroidea V, 2.75]
The gnateaters (Conopophagidae) have been rearranged based on
Batalha-Filho et al. (2014).
[Conopophagidae, Furnariida I, 2.67]
The phylogeny of the Emberiza buntings has been updated based on
Ren et al. (2014).
[Emberizidae, Core Passeroidea III, 2.67]
The cormorants have been rearranged somewhat based on Kennedy and
Spencer (2014). Kennedy and Spencer (2014) also found that the King
Cormorants from the Falklands are different from continental
`albiventer' (labelled atriceps in the paper, and presumed
a color morph). Because of this I treat the visually distinct King
Cormorant of the Falklands as a separate species, Falkland Cormorant,
Phalacrocorax albiventer (the type is from the Falklands).
[Phalacrocoracidae, Pelecanae II, 2.73]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.94.
Mangrove Reed-Warbler, Notiocichla avicenniae, has been moved ahead of
the Eurasian Reed-Warbler, Notiocichla scirpacea. See Arbabi et al. (2014b).
[Acrocephalidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.78]
Hyliota has been moved to Parioidea (Barker, 2014;
Alström et al., 2013) and Callaeoidea (Notiomystidae and
Callaeidae) has been merged into Petroicoidea (Barker, 2014; Zuccon and
Ericson, 2013). Note that Callaeoidea has priority over
[Notiomystidae, Basal Passerida, 2.56]
[Callaeidae, Basal Passerida, 2.56]
[Hylidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.77]
The American Tree Sparrow has been placed in the new genus
Spizelloides (Slager and Klicka, 2014).
[Passerellidae, Core Passeroidea III, 2.66]
Päckert et al. (2012b) and Wu et al. (2014) have prompted some
minor rearrangement in Garrulax and Trochalopteron and an
adjustment of the tree (but not linear order) in
[Leiothrichidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.73]
The treecreepers are now arranged as in Päckert (2012b).
[Certhiidae, Certhioidea, 2.56]
A tree has been added for the kinglets (Päckert 2009, 2012b), with
no change in linear order.
[Regulidae, Reguloidea & Bombycilloidea, 2.52c]
June 21 (revised)
Kirwan (2007) argues that the white-breasted subspecies of Abyssinian White-eye ((Z. abyssinicus) are closely related. These include socotranus, arabs, and omoensis. Based on Cox et al. (2014), who included socotranus, and the yellow-breasted flavilateralis and jubaensis, the Abyssinian White-eye is two species: the white-breasted Abyssinian White-eye and the yellow-breasted Kenya White-eye (Z. flavilateralis) including jubaensis. These were already recognized on the TiF list, but the subspecies allocation was unclear. I've split Kivu White-eye (Z. reichenowi) from African Yellow White-eye (Zosterops senegalensis) and changed the English name of Zosterops stierlingi to Southern Yellow White-eye to reflect hypothesized species limits, which rather speculatively include the senegalensis races kasaicus, heinrichi, quanzae, anderssoni, and tongensis. This means that the African Yellow White-eye, Zosterops senegalensis, is assumed to include demeryi, gerhardi, toroensis, stuhlmanni. Cox et al. found that jacksoni groups with senegalensis. Finally, The Montane White-eye, Zosterops poliogastrus is assumed to include kaffensis and kulalensis (although I have doubts about the latter). I take no position on eurycricotus.
This has been revised as comments on BirdForum brought Kirwan (2007) to
[Zosteropidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.72a]
Oriental Magpie, Pica bottanensis, including andersoni and serica
has been split from Eurasian Magpie, Pica pica based on Lee et al. (2003),
Kryukov et al. (2004), Haring et al. (2007a), and Zhang et al. (2012). The
race camtschatica remains in Eurasian Magpie.
[Corvidae, Corvida II, 2.72]
Based on a reconsidereation of Barker and Lanyon (2000) and Moyle
(2004), the Toucan-barbets are now treated as sister to the Toucans,
even though there is some uncertainty about this.
[Semnornithidae, Piciformes, 2.72]
The monotypic Riparian Antbird, Cercomacroides fuscicauda
has been split from the Blackish Antbird, Cercomacroides nigrescens.
See Mayer et al. (2014) and Tello et al. (2014).
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.66]
The Three-striped Warbler, Basileuterus tristriatus, has been split into four species:
- Costa Rican Warbler, Basileuterus melanotis, including chitrensis.
- Tacarcuna Warbler, Basileuterus tacarcunae (monotypic).
- Three-striped Warbler, Basileuterus tristriatus, including pariae, bessereri, meridanus, auricularis, daedalus, baezae, as well as undescribed forms from San Lucas and southern Peru.
- Bolivian Warbler, Basileuterus punctipectus, including inconspicuus and canens.
[parulidae, Core Passeroidea IV, 2.64]
The spelling of the tribe Pulsatrigini has been corrected to Pulsatricini.
[Strigidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.75a]
I've switched to the Ornelas et al. (2009) arrangement of the trogons.
Note that Pharomachrus has also been rearranged, and the order has been
tweaked in a couple of other places.
[Trogonidae, Anomalogonates I, 2.75]
The Wakatobi Flowerpecker, Dicaeum kuehni, has been split from
Gray-sided Flowerpecker, Dicaeum celebicum, based on Kelly et al.
(2014). The two differ in plumage, and mitochondrial DNA differs by over
2.5% (2.53-2.83% for COI). The DNA separation is in a range that offen
indicates species status. Moreover, there are noticable plumage and
morphological differences as documented by Kelly et al., (2014). To me,
this combination justifies the split. See the text for further comments
on barcoding thresholds.
[Dicaeidae, Basal Passeroidea, 2.76]
There have been some minor changes in the order of the Acrocephalidae
based on Arbabi et al. (2014a). Note that the Thick-billed Warbler is now
placed in Phragamaticola. Also, the genus name Titiza
Billberg, 1828 replaces Calamodus Kaup, 1829 for priority reasons.
Both have the same type: schoenobaenus.
[Acrocephalidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.76]
I've included 3 subfamilies for Cettiidae: Erythrocercinae, Scotocercinae, and Cettiinae.
[Cettiidae, Sylvioidea II, 2.71a]
The Socotra Bunting, Emberiza socotrana, has been repositioned
based on Schweizer and Kirwan (2014).
[Emberizidae, Core Passeroidea III, 2.65]
The megapods have been rearranged based on a multi-gene analysis of
all 22 taxa by Harris et al. (2014b).
[Megapodiidae, Galliformes, 2.68]
Based on Gibb et al. (2013), I've separated the ibises and spoonbills at
ordinal level (Plataleiformes) and made some rearrangement of the Aequornithes.
[Threskiornithidae, Pelecanae II, 2.72]
Oressochen (Bannister 1870) replaces Andichenodes
(Boetticher 1950) due to priority.
[Anatidae, Paleognaths & Anseriformes, 2.64a]
There have been a number of changes to the duck family. The Andean
Goose has moved to Andichenodes from Chloephaga and the
remaining Chloephaga have been rearranged. See McCracken et al.
(2010) and Bulgarella et al. (2014). The Steamer-ducks (Tachyeres)
and basal Anatidae have been rearranged based on Fulton et al. (2012).
Branta, Tadorna, and Aythya have been rearranged based
on Gonzalez et al. (2009). Salvadori's Teal has been moved to an
indeterminate position at the end. Kear (1975) made the case it is not in
Anas, but could not pin down its true affinities. Querquedula
and Punanetta have been merged in Spatula, as in Dickinson
and Remsen (2013 = H&M-4). Finally, the arrangement of Anas itself
has been modified based on Lavretsky et al. (2014).
[Anatidae, Paleognaths & Anseriformes, 2.64]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.93.
Following IOC I have split Tres Marias Amazon, Amazona tresmariae from
Yellow-headed Amazon, Amazona oratrix. Based on the available phylogenies,
this implies that the Panama Amazon, Amazona panamensis should also be separated
from Yellow-headed Amazon, Amazona oratrix. I have done so.
[Psittacidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.75]
Following SACC and Howard and Moore 4th ed., I have split the Psittacidae
into two families: Psittacidae and Psittaculidae, bringing the family total to 246.
[Psittacidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.74]
[Psittaculidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.74]
The Vireonidae have been rearranged based on Battey (2014). Tepui Greenlet, Hylophilus sclateri, becomes Tepui Vireo / Tepui Greenlet, Vireo sclateri. The remaining Hylophilus has been split into three pieces: Hylophilus, "Hylophilus", and Pachysylvia.
Also, I have split the South American Chivi Vireo, Vireo chivi from
Red-eyed Vireo. Battey (2014) sampled Red-eyed Vireos from 6 locations and 18 Chivi
Vireos and found that they are not sister taxa.
[Vireonidae, Corvida I, 2.75]
The White-bellied Spinetail becomes Mazaria propinqua. It had been
Schoeniophylax propinquus. See Claramunt (2014a).
[Furnariidae, Furnariida II, 2.71]
Using ancient DNA, Mitchell et al. (2014) confirmed that the elephant birds are
sister to the kiwis. As a result, I have included a tree that includes extinct
paleognath families. Note that is not a change of any sort, as it is identical to
the text-based tree I have used for the paleognaths for several years.
[Paleognaths, Paleognaths and Anseriformes, 2.63a]
Abrornis and Rhadina have been separated from
Phylloscopus; Pindalus, Pycnosphrys,
"Pycnosphrys", Acanthopneuste, and Cryptigata have
been separated from Seicercus, based on a combination of genetic distance
from Johanssen et al. (2007a) and plumage characteristics (HBW-11).
For more, see
[Phylloscopidae, Sylvioidea II, 2.71]
A tree based on Sprengelmeyer (2014) has been added to the loon account.
There is no change in the linear order.
[Gaviidae, Pelecanae II, 2.71a]
Copsychini has been rearranged a bit based on Voelker et al. (2014).
The genera Saxicoloides, Trichixos, and Kittacincla
have been separated from Copsychus. Also, the
Maputaland Scrub Robin, Tychaedon tongensis, has been
split from the Brown Scrub-Robin, Tychaedon signata. See Ribeiro et
[Muscicapidae, Muscicapoidea II, 2.74]
The Pternistis spurfowls have been rearranged based on the almost complete
phylogeny by Mandiwana-Neudani et al. (2014).
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.67]
another BirdForum post,
found that Trewick and Kirchman used quite different DNA for Megacrex.
One of the birds is probably mislabelled. Given the DNA of Trewick's bird
is almost identical to other DNA of Gallirallus lafresnayanus, it is
probably Trewick who is wrong. Accordingly, Megacrex inepta is placed
sister to the Poliolimnas-Amaurornis clade.
[Rallidae, Pelecanae I, 2.63]
The name Creciscus (Cabanis 1857, type jamaicensis)
has priority over Atlantisia.
[Rallidae, Pelecanae I, 2.62a]
Laurent Raty's post on BirdForum has led to reconsider the available literature on the Rallidae. As a result, I've made a number of changes.
- Canirallus has moved to Sarothruridae
- Megacrex has been merged into Gallirallus
- Atlantisia expanded to include black rails
- The Ash-throated Crake moved from Porzana to Pardirallus
- The Speckled Rail moved from Coturnicops to Atlantisia
- The Dot-winged Crake moved from Porzana to Atlantisia
- The Galapagos and Black Rails moved from Laterallus to Atlantisia
- The Spot-flanked Gallinule moved from Porphyriops to Porzana
[Rallidae, Pelecanae I, 2.62]
Based on Sigurdsson and Cracraft (2014), I have slightly adjusted the
Nightjar tree and restored the genus Podager.
[Caprimulgidae, Strisores, 2.60]
The spelling of Donegan's Ortalidaini has been corrected to
Ortalisini (David, Zootaxa 2016).
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.66a]
The English name of Western Sirystes has been changed to
Choco Sirystes / Western Sirystes to include current SACC usage.
[Tyrannidae, Tyrannida II, 2.66b]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.92.
Based on Irestedt et al. (2013), the Red-bellied Pitta, Erythropitta erythrogaster,
has been split into Northern Red-bellied Pitta, Erythropitta erythrogaster,
and Southern Red-bellied Pitta, Erythropitta macklotii.
[Pittidae, Passeriformes I, 2.54]
The recent paper by Klicka et al. (2014) has led to some changes in the
Passerellidae. Except for Atlepetes, which gets its first
comprehensive phylogeny, most of the changes are minor. The Yellow-green
Chlorospingus, Chlorospingus flavovirens, returns to the tanagers.
The Guadalupe Junco, Junco insularis, has been split from J.
hyemalis (it is actually sister to hyemalis + phaeonotus)
and Melozone has been merged into Aimophilia.
As for Atlapetes, it absorbs Pselliophorus and gets thoroughly
[Passerellidae, Core Passeroidea III, 2.64]
[Thraupidae, Core Passeroidea III, 2.74]
I've made a number of changes in the hummingbirds. There is one split: Mexican Hermit, Phaethornis mexicanus, is spilt from Long-billed Hermit, Phaethornis longirostris. See Howell (2013), and Arbeláz-Cortés and Navarro-Sigüenza (2013).
The rest of the changes are due to the recent analysis of the hummingbirds by McGuire et al. (2014). Various genera and species have been moved around, for a net loss of 2 genera (7 lost, 5 added). This involves the following changes:
- Anthracothorax has been merged into Eulampis.
- Loddigesia has been merged into Eriocnemis. This causes a name conflict as two species are mirabilis. The Marvelous Spatuletail gets to keep the name, and the Colorful Puffleg needs a new name. As none is available, I refer to it as Eriocnemis "mirabilis" for now.
- Clytolaema has been merged into Heliodoxa.
- Philodice and Nesophlox have been separated from Calliphlox, which is left with a single species.
- Atthis has been merged into Selasphorus.
- Part of Campylopterus has been separated as Platystylopterus.
- Two Leucippus have been separated as Thaumasius.
- One Leucippus has been separated as Talaphorus.
- The Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird moved to Saucerottia from Amazilia.
- The Sapphire-spangled Emerald moved to Hylocharis from Juliamyia.
- Cyanophaia and Cynanthus have been merged into Chlorostilbon.
- The remaining Juliamyia have been merged into Chlorestes.
[Trochilidae, Apodiformes, 2.69]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.91a.
The scientific name of Golden-backed Whistler has been corrected to
Pachycephala dahli, which has priority over Pachycephala aurea
and the scientific name of Santa Cruz Whistler has been corrected to
Pachycephala vanikorensis, which has priority over Pachycephala utupuae.
Finally, Pachycephala vitiensis is now used as advertised.
[Pachycephalidae, Corvida I, 2.74a]
The nuthatches have been rearranged based on Pasquet et al. (2014).
[Sittidae, Certhioidea, 2.55]
The CSV files have been updated to version 2.91.
Bearded Helmetcrest, Oxypogon guerinii is split into
Green-bearded Helmetcrest, Oxypogon guerinii,
Blue-bearded Helmetcrest, Oxypogon cyanolaemus,
White-bearded Helmetcrest, Oxypogon lindenii, and
Buffy Helmetcrest, Oxypogon stuebelii
based on Collar and Salaman (2013). Other hummingbird changes
are under consideration.
[Trochilidae, Apodiformes, 2.68]
The Procellariidae have been restructured based on Gangloff et al., (2012)
and Welch et al. (2014). Further, the St. Helena Petrel has been
moved to Pterodroma from Pseudobulweria.
[Procellariidae, Pelecanae II, 2.71]
Stipple-throated Antwren, Epinecrophylla haematonota is split into
Napo Stipple-throated Antwren, Epinecrophylla haematonota,
Negro Stipple-throated Antwren, Epinecrophylla pyrrhonota, and
Madeira Stipple-throated Antwren, Epinecrophylla amazonica
based on Whitney et al. (2013d).
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.65]
Tawny-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus mexicanus is split into
Tawny-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus mexicanus (mexicanus + pullus) and
Dusky Leaftosser, Sclerurus obscurior (andinus, obscurior,
peruvianus, macconnelli, and bahiae)
based on d'Horta et al., (2013).
[Furnariidae, Furnariida II, 2.70]
Sirystes, Sirystes sibilator is split into
Sibilant Sirystes, Sirystes sibilator,
White-rumped Sirystes, Sirystes albocinereus,
Todd's Sirystes, Sirystes subcanescens, and
Western Sirystes, Sirystes albogriseus,
based on Donegan (2013).
[Tyrannidae, Tyrannida II, 2.66]
The whistlers have been rearranged based on Jønsson et al. (2008c, 2014) and Andersen et al. (2014b). This change has been in the csv file for a while, but was delayed due to my illness. I have not strictly followed the phylogeny in Anderseen et al., but have kept several lumped together several closely related taxa that may their phylogeny splits. Even so, I recognize 8 additional species:
- Bougainville Whistler, Pachycephala richardsi, split from Hooded Whistler, Pachycephala implicata.
- Louisiade Whistler, Pachycephala collaris, split from Bismarck Whistler, Pachycephala citreogaster.
- Rossell Whistler, Pachycephala rosseliana, split from Bismarck Whistler, Pachycephala citreogaster.
- Rennell Whistler, Pachycephala feminina, split from Oriole Whistler, Pachycephala orioloides.
- Santa Cruz Whistler, Pachycephala utupuae, comprised of subspecies utupuae and ornata from the White-throated Whistler, Pachycephala vitiensis, and vanikorensis from the Melanesian Whistler, Pachycephala caledonica.
- Timor Whistler, Pachycephala calliope, split from Yellow-throated Whistler, Pachycephala macrorhyncha
- Wetar Whistler, Pachycephala arthuri, split from Yellow-throated Whistler, Pachycephala macrorhyncha. Note that arthuri is often synonymized with calliope.
- Babar Whistler, Pachycephala sharpei, split from Yellow-throated Whistler, Pachycephala macrorhyncha.
Further, the remainging (i.e. Fijian) races of the White-throated Whistler, Pachycephala vitiensis, are lumped into the Fiji Whistler, Pachycephala graeffii. The name vitiensis has priority, so the Fiji Whistler is now Pachycephala vitiensis.
Several whistler subspecies also move around. The Yellow-throated
Whistler, Pachycephala macrorhyncha, loses dammeriana which
joins the Mangrove Golden Whistler, Pachycephala melanura.
On the other hand, the Yellow Throated Whistler gains balim
from the Australian Golden Whistler, Pachycephala pectoralis.
The Mangrove Golden Whistler, Pachycephala melanura loses
dahli, which joins the Golden-backed Whistler, Pachycephala aurea.
[Pachycephalidae, Corvida I, 2.74]
Based on Kimball and Braun (2014), several groups in the Phasianidae
have been gathered together as Pavoninae. The Koklass Pheasant has been
moved to a basal position in Tetraonini, and is followed by the turkeys,
which are now only a clade within Tetraonini.
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.66]
The higher-level taxonomy of the Meliphagidae have been
rearranged to reflect Joseph et al. (2014). Thanks to John Penhallurick who
pointed out that although I said I used Joseph et al. (2014), I actually
used Andersen et al. (2014a), which is based on fewer genes.
That has now been corrected.
[Meliphagidae, Paracorvids, 2.68]
Following IOC, the Groundscraper Thrush (Psophocichla) has been
moved into Turdus.
[Turdidae, Muscicapoidea II, 2.73]
The lack of recent postings is due to a serious illness. I am recovering now, but it may be a while before regular postings resume.
Tello et al. (2014) found that Cercomacra was not monophyletic.
They proposed splitting Cercomacra into Cercomacra
(type brasiliana) and a new genus, Cercomacroides, type tyrannina.
That suggestion is followed here.
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.64]
After reconsideration, 3 of the species moved to Vosea were returned
[Meliphagidae, Paracorvids, 2.67]
The Honeyeaters have been rearranged based on Andersen et al. (2014a) and
Joseph et al. (2014). Some highlights include,
merging Glycifohia into Gliciphila;
moving 4 species of Melidectes to Vosea;
moving Kadavu Honeyeater, Xanthotis provocator,
Mao, Gymnomyza samoensis, and Giant Honeyeater, Gymnomyza viridis,
into Foulehaio; splitting
Wattled Honeyeater, Foulehaio carunculatus, into three species:
Viti Levu Honeyeater, Foulehaio procerior,
Vanua Levu Honeyeater, Foulehaio taviunensis,
Polynesian Honeyeater, Foulehaio carunculatus.
[Meliphagidae, Paracorvids, 2.66]
The Giant Conebill is usually placed in the genus Oremanes as
Oremanes fraseri (Sclater 1860). However, it turns out to be nested in
Conirostrum, and so has been changed. This creates a bit of a
nomenclatural complication as fraseri is preoccupied by
Conirostrum cinereum fraseri (Sclater 1859). As pointed out by Liam on
BirdForum, the next oldest available name for the Giant Conebill appears to
be binghami (Chapman 1919).
[Thraupidae, Core Passeroidea V, 2.73c]
Added Spotted Elachura as primary name of Spotted Wren-babbler.
[Elachuridae, Reguloidea & Bombycilloidea, 2.52a]
Based on Alström et al. (2014), the Rufous-throated Wren-babbler
caudatus and Rusty-throated Wren-babbler badeigularis are
returned to Spelaeornis (Timaliidae) from Elachura (Pnoepygidae).
[Pnoepygidae, Paroidea & Sylvioidea I, 2.75]
[Timaliidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.71]
Further, Elachura now has its own monotypic family, Elachuridae,
[Elachuridae, Reguloidea & Bombycilloidea, 2.52]
The flamingos have been slightly reordered based on Torres et al. (2014).
[Columbidae, Metaves I, 2.69]
The tanagers have been restructured based on Burns et al. (2014). Two new tribes are recognized: Catamblyrhynchini (Plushcap) and Orchesticini (Grosbeak-Tanagers). The Inca-Finches get an official name (Porphyrospizini), replacing Incaspizini. This makes 18 tribes.
Several species are transferred to different genera. Transfers involving new genera are:
- Masked Mountain-Tanager to Tephrophilus from Anisognathus (or Buthraupis)
- Blue-capped Tanager to Sporathraupis from Anisognathus
- Common Diuca-Finch to Hedyglossa (was Diuca), tribe Cissopini
- Create Trichothraupis from several ex-Lanio, Eucometis, and Tachyphonus
- Returned Pileated-Finches to Coryphospingus from Lanio
- St. Lucia Black Finch and Black-faced Grassquit to Melanospiza from Tiaris or Loxigilla
- Cuban Grassquit to Phonipara from Tiaris or Loxigilla
- Dull-colored Grassquit and Sooty Grassquit to "Loxigilla"
Several genera have also been eliminated.
- Giant Conebill (Oreomanes) has been merged into Conirostrum
- Blue Finch (Porphyrospiza) has been merged into Rhopospina
- Peg-billed Finch (Acanthidops) has been merged into Haplospiza
- Rufous-bellied Saltator (“Saltator”) merged into Dubusia
- Idiopsar, including 2 ex-Phrygilus species has been merged into Diuca
The Crimson-fronted Cardinal, Paroaria baeri, has been split into Xingu Cardinal, Paroaria xinguensis, and Araguaia Cardinal, Paroaria baeri (Lopes and Gonzaga, 2013).
To match recent SACC changes, Hylocryptus has been merged into Clibanornis. [Furnariidae, Furnariida II, 2.69b]
The scientific name of Bush Blackcap is corrected to Sylvia nigricapillus, from nigricapilla.
[Sylviidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.70b]
Two species move to new genera based on Winkler et al. (2014).
The Brown-fronted Woodpecker moves to Leiopicus from Dendrocopos and
the Crimson-breasted Woodpecker moves to Dryobates from Dendrocopos.
[Picidae, Piciformes, 2.71]
Several scientific names are corrected per H&M 4.
- Sri Lanka Junglefowl is Gallus lafayettii, not lafayetii [Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.65c]
- Mindanao Bleeding-heart is Gallicolumba crinigera, not criniger [Columbidae, Metaves I, 2.68b]
- Rueppell's Vulture is Gyps rueppelli, not rueppellii [Accipitridae, Accipitrimorphae, 2.59b]
- Mascarene Parrot is Mascarinus mascarin, not mascarinus [Psittacidae, Falconiformes & Psittaciformes, 2.73f]
- Siberian Whitethroat is Curruca blythi, not blythii.
[Sylviidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.70a]
- Fiji Bush-Warbler is Horornis ruficapilla, not ruficapillus.
[Cettiidae Sylvioidea II, 2.70b]
The scientific name of the Green-and-white Hummingbird is corrected to
Hylocharis viridicauda (was viridicaudus).
[Trochilidae, Apodiformes, 2.67c]
Two English names are changed to comform with the latest IOC list.
- Pink-rumped Rosefinch / Stresemann's Rosefinch, Carpodacus waltoni,
becomes Pink-rumped Rosefinch
[Fringillidae, Core Passeroidea II, 2.66a]
- Fatuhiva Monarch, Pomarea whitneyi, becomes Fatu Hiva Monarch.
[Monarchidae, Corvida II, 2.71c]
Several scientific names are corrected per H&M 4 and IOC.
- Black-billed Capercaillie becomes Tetrao urogalloides (was parvirostris)
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.65b]
- Rubeho Forest Partridge becomes Xenoperdix obscuratus (was obscurata)
[Phasianidae, Galliformes, 2.65b]
- Tapajos Hermit becomes Phaethornis aethopygus (was aethopyga)
[Trochilidae, Apodiformes, 2.67b]
- Steely-vented Hummingbird becomes Saucerottia saucerottei (was saucerrottei)
[Trochilidae, Apodiformes, 2.67b]
- Yellow-wattled Lapwing becomes Vanellus malarbaricus (was malabaricus)
[Charadriidae, Charadriiformes, 2.68a]
Gosling's Bunting, Emberiza goslingi, has been split from Cinnamon-breasted Bunting, Emberiza tahapisi. See Olsson et al. (2013b). [Emberizidae, Core Passeroidea III, 2.63]
I've followed Svensson (2013) and split the Subalpine Warbler into Western Subalpine Warbler, Curruca inornata, and Eastern Subalpine Warbler, Curruca cantillans. Further, I have changed the scientific name of Moltoni's Warbler, to subalpina instead of moltonii as consensus seems to be that it is correct.
I've also decided that it is better to treat the 6 major clades of lesser whitethroat as separate species rather than grouping four of them as Hume's Whitethroat. Thus the curruca complex includes:
- Lesser Whitethroat, Curruca curruca (inc. caucasica)
- Desert Whitethroat, Curruca minula
- *Siberian Whitethroat, Curruca blythii
- *Steppe Whitethroat, Curruca halimodendri (inc. jaxartica)
- Mountain Whitethroat / Hume's Whitethroat, Curruca althaea (inc. monticola)
- *Stolzmann's Whitethroat, Curruca margelanica (inc. telengitica, chuancheica)
where the asterisks indicate the new species. The main text has additional
comments on the choice of English names.
[Sylviidae, Sylvioidea III, 2.70]
The Acre Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma cohnhafti, was described by
Zimmer et al., (2013), although they use an older taxonomy and
place it in Hemitriccus. Although they don't discuss it,
their genetic results support separating Oncostoma pallens
from Snethlage's Tody-Tyrant, Oncostoma minor, as
a distinct species. Since pallens refers to the pale-green color,
we can call it Pale-green Tyrannulet (Todd's Tyrannulet is an alternative).
[Rhynchocyclidae, Tyrannida I, 2.58]
Coopmans's Tyrannulet, Zimmerius minimus, comprising minimus and cumanensis has somewhat speculatively been split from Golden-faced Tyrannulet, Zimmerius chrysops, based on comments in Rheindt et al., (2013). I continue include the Loja Tyrannulet, Zimmerius flavidifrons. Rheindt et al., (2014) describe a mosiac population that is linked to both the Golden-faced and Peruvian Tyrannulets. Also, Chico's Tyrannulet, Zimmerius chicomendesi, newly described by Whitney et al., (2013c), has been added to the list.
The English name of Knipolegus signatus has been changed from
Andean Tyrant to Jelski's Black-Tyrant.
[Tyrannidae, Tyrannida II, 2.65]
I've added 4 antbirds (2 splits, 2 newly described).
- Manicore Warbling-Antbird, Hypocnemis rondoni, is split from Spix's Warbling-Antbird, Hypocnemis striata. See Cohn-Haft et al., (2013).
- The newly described Aripuana Antwren, Herpsilochmus stotzi, is added to the list. See Whitney et al., (2013a).
- The newly described Predicted Antwren, Herpsilochmus praedictus, is added to the list. See Whitney et al., (2013b).
- Bicolored Antbird, Gymnopithys leucaspis, is split into Bicolored Antbird, Gymnopithys bicolor and White-cheeked Antbird, Gymnopithys leucaspis. See Brumfield et al., (2007).
[Thamnophilidae, Furnariida I, 2.62a]
I have lumped the Great Rosefinches following Tietze et al. (2013).
[Fringillidae, Core Passeroidea II, 2.66]
Back after a lengthy holiday break... The Icteridae have been updated based on Powell et al. (2014). Besides some rearrangement of taxa, Cuban Blackbird moves to genus Ptiloxena and Forbes's Blackbird moves to Anumara. There are also several splits.
- Yellow-billed Cacique is split into Prevost's Yellow-billed Cacique, Amblycercus holosericeus and Chapman's Yellow-billed Cacique, Amblycercus australis
- Yellow-rumped Cacique is split into Western Yellow-rumped Cacique, Cacicus flavicrissus and Amazonian Yellow-rumped Cacique, Cacicus cela
- Scarlet-rumped Cacique has been split into Scarlet-rumped Cacique, Cacicus microrhynchus, Pacific Cacique, Cacicus pacificus, and Subtropical Cacique Cacicus uropygialis
- Mountain Cacique is split into Northern Mountain-Cacique, Cacicus leucoramphus and Southern Mountain-Cacique, Cacicus chrysonotus
- Finally, Barbados Grackle, Quiscalus fortirostris is split from Carib Grackle, Quiscalus lugubris.
[Icteridae, Core Passeroidea IV, 2.63]