GRUAE Bonaparte, 1854
The Gruae include the Opisthocomiformes (Hoatzin) and the Gruimorphae. Bootstrap support for this clade was 91%, and it is possible that it merely appears to be a clade. Indeed, one of their alternative trees had the Hoatzin on its own branch, rather than part of Gruae. Support for Gruimorphae (Gruiformes plus Charadriiformes) was higher (96%). I have more confidence in that grouping as the Charadriiformes and Gruiformes have often been considered close on morphological grounds.
OPISTHOCOMIFORMES L'Herminier, 1837
The Opisthocomiformes contain a single extant species, the Hoatzin, and are restricted to South America (mainly in the Amazon and Orinoco basins). This was not always true. There is fossil evidence of Opisthocomiformes from Namibia (Mayr, Alvarenga, and Mourer-Chauviré, 2011), Kenya (Mayr, 2014c), and France (Mayr and De Pietri, 2014), as well as from South America. There is also a fossil from the Green River Formation in Wyoming that has some similarities to Opisthocomiformes (Olson, 1992), but its true affinites are unknown and could be related to cuckoos or turacos.
A morphological analysis of modern Opisthocomus, and fossil Hoazinavis (Brazil, 22-24 mya), Protoazin (France, 34 mya), and Namibiavis (Namibia and Kenya, 15-17.5 mya), found Hoazinavis most closely related to modern Opisthocomus, followed by Protoazin, with Namibiavis the most distant relative.
A long list of bird families have been considered the closet relatives of the Hoatzin, including seriemas, cuckoos, turacos, rails, doves, and others. The lack of any close relatives justifies placing it in its own order. Fain and Houde (2004) and Ericson et al. considered it part of Metaves. The TiF list currently follows Jarvis et al. (2014), who put it as the basal taxon in Gruae. However, the bootstrap support is only 91%, so there is uncertainty about this. The Hoatzin could belong to one of the other high level groups, or even form its own high level group (Jarvis et al, 2014, Fig. 3b).
Opisthocomidae: Hoatzin Swainson, 1837
1 genus, 1 species HBW-3
- Hoatzin, Opisthocomus hoazin
GRUIMORPHAE Bonaparte, 1854
The Gruimorphae split into two groups: Gruiformes and Charadriiformes. The Gruimorphae are here, the Charadriiformes are on the next page.
GRUIFORMES Bonaparte, 1854
All sorts of taxa have been previously been included in the Gruiformes, which seemed to serve as a waste-bin taxon. The mesites, kagu, and sunbittern were once considered Gruiformes. This version of the Gruiformes is a more coherent clade. The family order is based on Fain et al. (2007). Mayr (2008a) discusses both DNA and morphological support for this clade.
Psophiidae: Trumpeters Mathews, 1913
1 genus, 6 species HBW-3
The trumpeters are an ancient lineage, probably becoming distinct from the limpkins and cranes in the Paleocene or Eocene. Nonetheless, the current crop of trumpeters are quite closely related. Indeed, Ribas et al. (2012) estimate that the common ancestor of all the extant trumpeters lived about 3 million years ago. At some point within the last few million years, only one trumpeter species left present-day descendants. Since the trumpeters have been around roughly 50 million years, it is likely that many species of trumpeters died out. This suggests that extinction plays a very important role in the biodiversity that we see, and that it hides much avian history.
Although the SACC arranges the 8 recognized subspecies of trumpeter into 3 species, I currently recognize 6 species. Oppenheimer and Silveira (2009) suggest that interjecta is indistinguishable from dextralis. Ribas et al. (2012) found 8 genetically distinct lineages, including interjecta. However, the genetic distance between interjecta and dextralis was small. The subspecies obscura was slightly more distinct, having separated roughly 500,000 years ago. The case for treating these as separate species is weak. For now I group them all as P. obscura. The other races of trumpeter are more distinct from one another, having likely separated from nearly 1 to about 2 million years ago. In the case of napensis and ochroptera, there is no sign of interbreeding in spite of a range overlap. This suggests they are separate species, and provides support for treating the remaining trumpeters as separate species.
Ribas et al. (2012) also show how the separation of the trumpeters relates to the formation of various riverine barriers in the Amazon region. The various trumpeters inhabit several of the well-known areas of endemism in the Amazon. If other types of animal show a similar pattern and timing of separation, it will help explain the existence of these areas of endemism.
The additional English names are those used by Hellmayr and Conover (1942), sometimes for subspecies.
- Napo Trumpeter, Psophia napensis
- Gray-winged Trumpeter, Psophia crepitans
- Ochre-winged Trumpeter, Psophia ochroptera
- White-winged Trumpeter, Psophia leucoptera
- Green-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis
- Dusky Trumpeter, Psophia obscura
Aramidae: Limpkin Bonaparte, 1842
1 genus, 1 species HBW-3
- Limpkin, Aramus guarauna
Gruidae: Cranes Vigors, 1825
4 genera, 15 species HBW-3
The basic structure of the crane family has been known for some time. I follow H&M-4 concerning crane genera, which divides the cranes into four genera and recognizes the deep division between the crowned cranes and the rest by putting the genus Balearica in its own subfamily. Some authors further divide the cranes, but not all of these divisions fit the genetic data. This was already visible in the DNA hybridization analysis of Krajewski (1989). It was even clearer in the cytochrome-b analysis of Krajewski and Fetzner (1994). Fain, Krajewski, and Houde (2007) refine this in a multi-gene analysis. The most recent analysis is that of Krajewski et al. (2010). They use the complete mitochondrial genome, and their analysis is followed here.
Balearicinae: Crowned Cranes Brasil, 1913
- Gray Crowned-Crane, Balearica regulorum
Click for Gruidae tree
- Black Crowned-Crane, Balearica pavonina
Gruinae: Cranes Vigors, 1825
- Siberian Crane, Leucogeranus leucogeranus
- Sandhill Crane, Antigone canadensis
- White-naped Crane, Antigone vipio
- Sarus Crane, Antigone antigone
- Brolga, Antigone rubicunda
- Wattled Crane, Grus carunculata
- Demoiselle Crane, Grus virgo
- Blue Crane, Grus paradisea
- Red-crowned Crane, Grus japonensis
- Whooping Crane, Grus americana
- Common Crane, Grus grus
- Hooded Crane, Grus monacha
- Black-necked Crane, Grus nigricollis
Heliornithidae: Finfoots G.R. Gray, 1840
3 genera, 3 species HBW-3
- African Finfoot, Podica senegalensis
- Masked Finfoot, Heliopais personatus
- Sungrebe, Heliornis fulica
There have been suggestions that this group deserves recognition as a family since at least Sibley and Ahlquist (1985). Hackett et al. (2008) found that Sarothrura is more closely related to the finfoots than to the rails. Garcia-R. et al. (2014a) found that same is true of Canirallus, and that it is more closely related to Sarothrura than to the finfoots. Accordingly, they are placed in a separate family.
Livezey (1998) suggested that Rallicula (formerly part of Rallina) may also belong with the flufftails based on a phylogenetic analysis of osteological, myological, and integumentary characters.
The Tsingy Wood Rail, Canirallus beankaensis, has been newly discovered within the Madagascan Wood Rail complex. See Goodman et al. (2011).
3 genera, 16 species Not HBW Family
- Chestnut Forest-Rail, Rallicula rubra
- White-striped Forest-Rail, Rallicula leucospila
- Forbes's Forest-Rail, Rallicula forbesi
- Mayr's Forest-Rail, Rallicula mayri
- Gray-throated Rail, Canirallus oculeus
- Madagascan Wood Rail, Canirallus kioloides
- Tsingy Wood Rail, Canirallus beankaensis
- White-spotted Flufftail, Sarothrura pulchra
- Buff-spotted Flufftail, Sarothrura elegans
- Red-chested Flufftail, Sarothrura rufa
- White-winged Flufftail, Sarothrura ayresi
- Slender-billed Flufftail, Sarothrura watersi
- Streaky-breasted Flufftail, Sarothrura boehmi
- Chestnut-headed Flufftail, Sarothrura lugens
- Striped Flufftail, Sarothrura affinis
- Madagascan Flufftail, Sarothrura insularis
Rallidae: Rails, Gallinules, Coots Rafinesque, 1815
43 genera, 150 species HBW-3
|Click for Rallidae species tree|
The only comprehensive molecular review of the rails is García-R. et al. (2014). Their results are generally consistent with earlier partial studies including Trewick (1997), Slikas et al., (2002), Groenenberg et al. (2008), and Ozaki et al. (2010). The discussion in Christidis and Boles (2008) was also helpful as was the reanalysis of archived data by Raty on BirdForum. We still lack DNA for nine genera containing twelve species (five of them extinct). In some cases, the morphological studies by Olson (1973) and Livezey (1998) have allowed an educated guess concerning their affinities.
The genus Canirallus has moved to Sarothruridae (flufftails), as has Rallicula (formerly part of Rallina).
García-R. et al. (2014a, b) have attempted to put a chronology on rail diversification. I think their timescale is stretched a bit, at least on the far end (perhaps about 40%), but that it provides a reasonable guide for establishing higher taxa. I've divided the rails into three subfamiles: Rallinae, Gallinulinae, and Porphyrioninae, with Gallinulinae further divided into two tribes (Pardirallini and Gallinulini), and Porphyrioninae divided into four tribes (Porphyrionini, Himantornithini, Zapornini, and Laterallini). García-R. et al. (2014a, b) estimate that each of the subfamilies originated in the late Eocene, while the tribes originated in the early Oligocene.
Incertae Sedis: Rallidae
We don't have any solid information concerning Rougetius. I can't even be sure that it is part of Rallidae rather than Sarothruridae. Assuming it is part of Rallidae, it might belong somewhere in Rallinae. There's just not much basis for either treatment. That ambiguity causes me to put it first on the list.
- Rouget's Rail, Rougetius rougetii
Rallinae: Long-billed Rails and allies Rafinesque, 1815
We now turn to the Rallinae. The genera are ordered based on García-R. et al. (2014), except for four genera that have not be DNA-tested. Biensis is often considered part of Rallus, but Livezey (1999) found that suggested that the Madagascan Rail is not closely related to Rallus, so it is placed in its own genus, Biensis (Pucheran 1845). It's not clear whether it is closer to Rallus or to Gallirallus, so I have placed it between the two groups.
The extinct Aphanapteryx and Erythromachus are sometimes considered congeneric, and are most likely somewhere near Dryolimnas. Finally, Livezey (1998) found Gymnocrex sister to Habroptila, which has been merged into Gallirallus (see below). Accordingly, I place Gymnocrex next to Gallirallus.
Based on Maley (2012) and Maley and Brumfield (2013), King Rail, Rallus elegans, has been split into King Rail, Rallus elegans (eastern North America, Cuba) and Aztec Rail, Rallus tenuirostris (central Mexico). Further, Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris, has been split into Clapper Rail, Rallus crepitans, (Caribbean and eastern North America), Ridgway's Rail, Rallus obsoletus, (western North America), and Mangrove Rail, Rallus longirostris, (South America).
|Clapper/King Rail complex|
|obsoletus, levipes, yumanensis,
|western US, |
|phelpsi, margaritae*, pelodramus*,
longirostris*, crassirostris*, cypereti
|elegans, ramsdeni||eastern US and Mexico, |
|crepitans, saturatus, waynei,
scottii, insularum, pallidus*,
grossi*, belizensis*, coryi,
|eastern US and Mexico, |
|* = subspecies not sampled by Maley and Brumfield (2013).|
Clapper (or possibly Mangrove) Rails have very recently been discovered along the Pacific Coast of southern Central America (esp. the Gulfs of Fonseca and Nicoya). There is also a report from the Atlantic coast (Panama: Bocos del Toro). So far as I know, none of these have been definitely identified as to subspecies, but Van Dort (2013) suggests the Pacific coast rails are Mangrove Rails.
The genus Gallirallus itself has been recently studied by Kirchman (2012). As a result, the genera Eulabeornis and Habroptila, which had previously not been considered that close to Gallirallus, end up submerged inside it, as is Nesoclopeus. The genus Aramidopsis is merged into Lewinia, which gains two species from Gallirallus. Kirchman argued that the genetic distances between all the Gallirallus species is fairly small, and indicates a common ancestry as recently as a million or so years ago. This is amazingly recent!
I don't believe his calibration, which was based on the fact that rails cannot have been on Wake Island for more than about 125,000 years. The idea is that Wake Island was completely submerged at that time. More conventional molecular dating gives a much older date, about 7.8 million years ago, suggesting that the Wake Island Rail recently arrived from another island. This suggests a very rapid loss of the ability to fly. Kirchman (2012) found that the extinct Wake Island Rail's closest relative was the extinct Mangaia Rail, Gallirallus ripleyi from the Cook Islands. The Mangiaia Rail is known only from subfossil remains that appear to be 700-1000 years old, and its date of extinction is uncertain. It is not included on the main list, but is included in the Rallidae tree.
The extinct Sharpe's Rail, Gallirallus sharpei, is known from one specimen from an unknown location. According to Bird Life International, it is now thought to have been a color morph of Buff-banded Rail, Gallirallus philippensis. The information they cite remains to be published.
- Chestnut-headed Crake, Anurolimnas castaneiceps
- African Rail, Rallus caerulescens
- Water Rail, Rallus aquaticus
- Brown-cheeked Rail, Rallus indicus
- Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola
- Bogota Rail, Rallus semiplumbeus
- Austral Rail, Rallus antarcticus
- Plain-flanked Rail, Rallus wetmorei
- Ridgway's Rail, Rallus obsoletus
- Aztec Rail, Rallus tenuirostris
- Mangrove Rail, Rallus longirostris
- King Rail, Rallus elegans
- Clapper Rail, Rallus crepitans
- Madagascan Rail, Biensis madagascariensis
- Red Rail, Aphanapteryx bonasia
- Rodrigues Rail, Erythromachus leguati
- White-throated Rail, Dryolimnas cuvieri
- Reunion Rail, Dryolimnas augusti
- Corn Crake, Crex crex
- African Crake, Crex egregia
- Snoring Rail, Lewinia plateni
- Slaty-breasted Rail, Lewinia striata
- Brown-banded Rail, Lewinia mirifica
- Lewin's Rail, Lewinia pectoralis
- Auckland Rail, Lewinia muelleri
- Blue-faced Rail, Gymnocrex rosenbergii
- Talaud Rail, Gymnocrex talaudensis
- Bare-eyed Rail, Gymnocrex plumbeiventris
- Invisible Rail, Gallirallus wallacii
- Hawkins's Rail, Gallirallus hawkinsi
- Calayan Rail, Gallirallus calayanensis
- Chestnut Rail, Gallirallus castaneoventris
- Weka, Gallirallus australis
- New Caledonian Rail, Gallirallus lafresnayanus
- Chatham Rail, Gallirallus modestus
- Okinawa Rail, Gallirallus okinawae
- Barred Rail, Gallirallus torquatus
- Dieffenbach's Rail, Gallirallus dieffenbachii
- Pink-legged Rail, Gallirallus insignis
- Guam Rail, Gallirallus owstoni
- Woodford's Rail, Gallirallus woodfordi
- Roviana Rail, Gallirallus rovianae
- Bar-winged Rail, Gallirallus poecilopterus
- Buff-banded Rail, Gallirallus philippensis
- Lord Howe Woodhen, Gallirallus sylvestris
- Wake Island Rail, Gallirallus wakensis
- Tahiti Rail, Gallirallus pacificus
Gallinulinae G.R. Gray, 1840
The next group is the Gallinulinae. It contains two tribes, Pardirallini and Gallinulini. Interestingly, neither the swamphens nor the American Purple Gallinule are part of the Gallinulinae.
Pardirallini is a clade of Neotropical rails. There are two clades in Pardirallini. The first consists of the the former Cyanolimnas and Neocrex rails and the Ash-throated Crake. The latter is the type of Mustelirallus (Bonaparte 1856), and I've put merged Cyanolimnas and Neocrex into Mustelirallus. These are sister to Pardirallus, completing the first clade. The second contains the Aramides wood-rails and the Uniform Crake (Amaurolimnas).
Based on Marcondes and Silveira (2015), the Russet-naped Wood-Rail / Rufous-naped Wood-Rail, Aramides albiventris, including subspecies mexicanus, vanrossemi, pacificus, and plumbeicollis, has been split from Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus. AOU NACC has also changed the name of Gray-necked Wood-Rail to Gray-cowled Wood-Rail. SACC uses Gray-necked, and I continue to use that also, although the AOU csv file will use the new AOU name.
Gallinulini mainly contains the gallinules and coots, together with the woodhens and native-hens. It also contains the remaining portion of Porzana, after many species have been transferred to Zapornia. I follow Christidis and Boles (2008) and separate Pareudiastes (Hartlaub and Finsch 1871, type pacificus) and Tribonyx (DuBus 1840, type mortierii) from Gallinula.
Note that the Spot-flanked Gallinule, formerly in Gallinula, is now in the monotypic genus Porphyriops (Pucheran 1845). Raty's reanalysis found that the Spot-flanked Gallinule, Porphyriops melanops, belongs near Porzana. This makes sense as the Spot-flanked Gallinule looks much like a Sora, Porzana carolina. García-R. et al. (2014), using more data, placed it as shown on the diagram and estimated that the common ancestor of Porzana and Porphyriops lived perhaps 20 million years ago. Even if this is 40% exaggerated, it is more than enough to support using a different genus for the gallinule.
The Lesser Moorhen is now Paragallinula angulata instead of Gallinula (Sangster, Garcia-R, and Trewick, 2015, type angulata). This change was needed because Paragallinula is basal to both Gallinula (true gallinules and moorhena) and Fulica (coots).
Following AOU supplement 57 (2016), the Caribbean Coot, Fulica caribaea, is now treated as a color morph of American Coot, Fulica americana. There was never strong evidence these were separate species.
This list treats the Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata and Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus, as separate species, as does the AOU (both NACC and SACC). Groenenberg et al. (2008) found that the Common Moorhen is more closely related to the Gough Moorhen, Gallinula comeri, and the extinct Tristan Moorhen, Gallinula nesiotis, than to the Common Gallinule. The relationships of the rest of the former Gallinula have not been subject to genetic testing.
Pardirallini: Wood-Rails and allies Livezey, 1998
- Spotted Rail, Pardirallus maculatus
- Blackish Rail, Pardirallus nigricans
- Plumbeous Rail, Pardirallus sanguinolentus
- Ash-throated Crake, Mustelirallus albicollis
- Zapata Rail, Mustelirallus cerverai
- Colombian Crake, Mustelirallus colombiana
- Paint-billed Crake, Mustelirallus erythrops
- Uniform Crake, Amaurolimnas concolor
- Rufous-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides axillaris
- Little Wood-Rail, Aramides mangle
- Brown Wood-Rail, Aramides wolfi
- Giant Wood-Rail, Aramides ypecaha
- Russet-naped Wood-Rail / Rufous-naped Wood-Rail, Aramides albiventris
- Gray-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides cajaneus
- Red-winged Wood-Rail, Aramides calopterus
- Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail, Aramides saracura
Gallinulini: Coots, True Gallinules and Moorhens G.R. Gray, 1840
- Makira Woodhen, Pareudiastes silvestris
- Samoan Woodhen / Samoan Moorhen, Pareudiastes pacificus
- Black-tailed Native-hen, Tribonyx ventralis
- Tasmanian Native-hen, Tribonyx mortierii
- Spot-flanked Gallinule, Porphyriops melanops
- Sora, Porzana carolina
- Spotted Crake, Porzana porzana
- Australian Crake, Porzana fluminea
- Lesser Moorhen, Paragallinula angulata
- Dusky Moorhen, Gallinula tenebrosa
- Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus
- Tristan Moorhen, Gallinula nesiotis
- Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata
- Gough Moorhen, Gallinula comeri
- Red-fronted Coot, Fulica rufifrons
- Horned Coot, Fulica cornuta
- Giant Coot, Fulica gigantea
- Red-gartered Coot, Fulica armillata
- Eurasian Coot, Fulica atra
- Mascarene Coot, Fulica newtonii
- Red-knobbed Coot, Fulica cristata
- Slate-colored Coot / Andean Coot, Fulica ardesiaca
- White-winged Coot, Fulica leucoptera
- Hawaiian Coot, Fulica alai
- American Coot, Fulica americana
Porphyrioninae Reichenbach, 1849
Although the swamphens are placed next to the gallinules and coots, the genetic distance between them is quite large. Garci-R. et al. (2014a, b) estimate that their most recent common ancestor lived some 40 million years ago. This should not now be surprising. Earlier geneitic evidence has separated them with Ozaki et al. (2010) and Raty placing the swamphens sister to Laterallini and Trewick (1997) grouping them with Zapornini. The morphological evidence has also cast doubt on the position of the swamphens, with Livezey (1998) putting them in a relatively basal position.
The swamphens are in the final subfamily, Porphyrioninae. It contains four tribes: Porphyrionini, Himantornithini, Zapornini, and Laterallini.
The first tribe, Porphyrionini is mainly composed of purple gallinules and swamphens (Porphyrio). I'm speculating that Aphanocrex goes here too. Indeed, Livezey's (1998) analysis suggested that Aphanocrex might even be embedded in Porphyrula,. As for Porphyrula itself, Olson (1973) had recommended that it be merged into Porphyrio. Trewick (1997) made a genetic case for this merger, which was adopted by AOU in 2002.
Based on the genetic analysis of García-R. and Trewick (2015) and the earlier papers by Sangster, 1998) and Sangster et al. (1999, the Purple Swamphen, Porphyrio porphyrio has been split into 5 species:
- Western Swamphen, Porphyrio porphyrio,
- Black-backed Swamphen, Porphyrio indicus, including viridis,
- Australasian Swamphen, Porphyrio melanotus, including melanopterus palliatus, bellus, samoensis, vitiensis, and pelewensis,
- Gray-headed Swamphen, Porphyrio poliocephalus, including caspius and seistanicus,
- Phillipine Swamphen, Porphyrio pulverulentus.
The second tribe is Himantornithini, so called because it contains the Nkulengu Rail, Himantornis haematopus, which was previously thought to be a very basal member of Rallidae. Surprisingly, it is not only not basal, but seems to be sister to the New Guinea Flightless Rail, Megacrex inepta. These group with the Striped Crake, Aenigmatolimnas marginalis, White-browed Crake, Poliolimnas cinereus, Watercock, Gallicrex cinerea, and the Amaurornis bush-hens and waterhen.
Note that sample used by Trewick (1997) that is supposedly from Megacrex inepta appears to be wrong. Raty, in s BirdForum post, found that the DNA of Trewick's bird is almost identical to other DNA of Gallirallus lafresnayanus.
The third tribe in Porphyrioninae is Zapornini. It contains a number of Old World crakes. The basal genus is what remains of Rallina. Many of the other species were previously classified as genus Porzana, but have been moved to Zapornia (Leach 1816, type Gallinula minuta Montagu 1813 = parva). Given the genetic distances involved, I've separated the Black Crake as Limnocorax flavirostra (W. Peters, 1854), and the Ruddy-breasted Crake and Band-bellied Crake in genus Limnobaenus (Sundevall 1873, type fuscus).
That brings us to the last tribe, the tribe of New World crakes, Laterallini. I have resurrected Rufirallus (Bonaparte 1854, type viridis) for the Russet-crowned Crake, Rufirallus viridis. It may be sister to the Ocellated Crake, Micropygia schomburgkii (see Raty's reanalysis). They seem to form a basal group in Laterallini. Most of the rest of the species are in Laterallus or Creciscus. This includes the Black-banded Crake, Laterallus fasciatus, which has been moved from Rufirallus (or Porzana or Anurolimnas, depending on the taxonomy used). Two Laterallus (albigularis and exilis) are closer to Creciscus than Laterallus, and have been placed in Limnocrex. Limnocrex is close to Hapalocrex (Yellow-breasted Crake), and both are sister to Coturnicops (Swinhoe's and Yellow Rails). Swinhoe's Rail is the only Old World representative in Laterallini.
Raty's reanalysis grouped together a few species that look like Black Rail (jamaicensis). The Galapagos Rail belongs here too. The old name Creciscus (Cabanis 1857, type jamaicensis) applies to the group. Presumably the Inaccessible Island Rail, Atlantisia rogersi, and Ascension Rail, Mundia elpenor are close relatives.
Porphyrionini: Purple Gallinules and Swamphens Reichenbach, 1849
- St. Helena Rail, Aphanocrex podarces
- Allen's Gallinule, Porphyrio alleni
- Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinica
- Azure Gallinule, Porphyrio flavirostris
- Western Swamphen, Porphyrio porphyrio
- Black-backed Swamphen, Porphyrio indicus
- African Swamphen, Porphyrio madagascariensis
- South Island Takahe, Porphyrio hochstetteri
- North Island Takahe, Porphyrio mantelli
- Australasian Swamphen, Porphyrio melanotus
- Gray-headed Swamphen, Porphyrio poliocephalus
- Philippine Swamphen, Porphyrio pulverulentus
- White Swamphen / Lord Howe Swamphen, Porphyrio albus
Himantornithini: Bush-hens and Waterhens Bonaparte, 1856
- Nkulengu Rail, Himantornis haematopus
- New Guinea Flightless Rail, Megacrex inepta
- Striped Crake, Aenigmatolimnas marginalis
- White-browed Crake, Poliolimnas cinereus
- Watercock, Gallicrex cinerea
- Isabelline Bush-hen, Amaurornis isabellina
- White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis phoenicurus
- Plain Bush-hen, Amaurornis olivacea
- Talaud Bush-hen, Amaurornis magnirostris
- Pale-vented Bush-hen, Amaurornis moluccana
Zapornini: Old World Crakes Des Murs, 1860
- Slaty-legged Crake, Rallina eurizonoides
- Andaman Crake, Rallina canningi
- Red-legged Crake, Rallina fasciata
- Red-necked Crake, Rallina tricolor
- Black Crake, Limnocorax flavirostra
- Ruddy-breasted Crake, Limnobaenus fuscus
- Band-bellied Crake, Limnobaenus paykullii
- Brown Crake, Zapornia akool
- Little Crake, Zapornia parva
- St. Helena Crake, Zapornia astrictocarpus
- Baillon's Crake, Zapornia pusilla
- Laysan Rail, Zapornia palmeri
- Sakalava Rail, Zapornia olivieri
- Black-tailed Crake, Zapornia bicolor
- Hawaiian Rail, Zapornia sandwichensis
- Red-eyed Crake, Zapornia atra
- Spotless Crake, Zapornia tabuensis
- Kosrae Crake, Zapornia monasa
- Tahiti Crake, Zapornia nigra
Laterallini:New World Crakes Informal (TiF, 2014)
- Ocellated Crake, Micropygia schomburgkii
- Russet-crowned Crake, Rufirallus viridis
- Black-banded Crake, Laterallus fasciatus
- Ruddy Crake, Laterallus ruber
- Rusty-flanked Crake, Laterallus levraudi
- Rufous-sided Crake, Laterallus melanophaius
- Red-and-white Crake, Laterallus leucopyrrhus
- Rufous-faced Crake, Laterallus xenopterus
- Swinhoe's Rail, Coturnicops exquisitus
- Yellow Rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis
- Yellow-breasted Crake, Hapalocrex flaviventer
- Gray-breasted Crake, Limnocrex exilis
- White-throated Crake, Limnocrex albigularis
- Ascension Crake, Mundia elpenor
- Inaccessible Island Rail, Atlantisia rogersi
- Speckled Rail, Creciscus notatus
- Dot-winged Crake, Creciscus spiloptera
- Black Rail, Creciscus jamaicensis
- Galapagos Rail / Galapagos Crake, Creciscus spilonota