Tyrannida

Passeriformes

Tyranni: Suboscines

Passeri: Oscines

Passerida

Sylvioidea
Muscicapoidea and allies
Passeroidea

The 46 Orders

Paleognathae

Galloanserae

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Otidimorphae

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Opisthocomiformes

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Tyrannidae: Tyrant Flycatchers Vigors, 1825

85 genera, 349 species HBW-9

Click for Tyrannidae species tree
Click for Tyrannidae
species tree

The loss of the Rhynchocyclidae and other taxa has reduced the Tyrannidae from their traditional size. Nonetheless, the Tyrannidae remain the largest of the suboscine families. The Tyrannidae include about one quarter of the suboscines.

Although Ohlson et al. (2013) estimate that the Tyrannidae have been a separate lineage since roughly 25-30 million years ago (mid-Oligocene), they found the current diversification of the group dates to the last 20 million years. As usual, there's some dispersion in the age estimates. Harvey et al. (2020) put its origin at 21.8 million years while Oliveros et al. (2019) give about 18.5 mya.

The tyrant flycatchers remain among the most difficult birds to classify and identify, full of cryptic species. The Empidonax flycatchers are an example familiar to North American birders. Some are so cryptic that are often impossible to identity even in the hand, unless they call, such as the Alder (E. alnorum) and Willow Flycathers (E. traillii). With others, such as the Cordilleran (E. occidentalis) and Pacific-slope Flycatchers (E. difficilis), there remains controversy about whether 1 or 2 species are involved. Such problems also occur with tyrant flycatchers in other genera.

Tyrannidae
Click for genus-level tree
for Tyrannidae

The slimmed-down Tyrannidae fall into four main clades, three major and one minor. I rank these clades as subfamilies. The first subamily is Hirundineinae. This is a small subfamily. After some recent splits it still only contains 11 species. Ohlson et al. (2008) considered this group closest to the Tyranninae and Fluvicolinae. In contrast, Fjeldså et al. (2018) and Tello et al. (2009) found them sister to the Elaeniinae. Rheindt et al.'s (2008a) data put them in a more basal position, sister to the combined Elaeniinae, Tyranninae, and Fluvicolinae. Harvey et al. (2020), which I use for the Tyrannidae, have Hirundineinae as the basal clade in Tyrannidae.

The second subfamily contains the Elaenias (Elaeniinae). It split into two major branches about 14 mya. The two branches are the tribes Euscarthmini and Elaeniini. If you prefer more tribes, the split between Zimmerius and the rest of Euscarthmini occurred about 13 mya, and that between the Stigmatura-Inezia and Xanthomyias-Camptostoma groups occurred about 12¼ mya.

The situation in the Elaeniini had been rather complex, with different analyses giving quite different results. Again, Harvey et al. (2020) have resolved many of the issues I had with this group. See Ohlson et al. (2013), Ericson et al. (2006b), Ohlson et al. (2008), Rheindt et al. (2008a), and Tello et al. (2009) for alternative treatments. Within Elaeniini, the next division is at 13 mya, between the Elaenia and Suiriri branches. The latter branch has no natural breakpoints after that.

The remainder of the Tyrannidae breaks into two more clades at 14 mya: Tyranninae and Fluvicolinae. Before July 2021, I left the Tyranninae without any substructure. I now divide them into three tribes. The small Ramphotrigonini branch dates to 13 mya, while the split between Myiarchini (Myiarchus flycatchers and relatives) and Tyrannini (kingbirds and relatives) occurred about 11¼ mya.

The placement of the Short-tailed Field Tyrant, Muscigralla brevicauda, was previously somewhat soft and I put it in its own subfamily because I wasn't sure where it belonged. In Harvey et al. (2020) the tyrant clearly groups with the Fluvicolinae and I regard it as forming the first of the Fluvicoline tribes: Muscigrallini. This branch dates to about 13.7 mya.

The other four tribes I recognize in Fluvicolinae date from 12.5-12.0 mya. Of them, Ochthoecini is the oldest, followed by Fluvicolini. The other two, Contopini and Taeniopterini (sometimes called Xolmiini or Xolmini) are the youngest at 12 mya. I considered adding one or two more, but in the end, didn't think it was informative enough to justify the additional compliction.

Hirundineinae Tello et al., 2009

Notes — Hirundineinae

The Hirundineinae have grown to 11 species due to splits based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist (del Hoyo and Collar, 2016). These splits involve three species.

Ornate Flycatcher Split: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), who appear to have sampled phoenicurus and ornatus, and the comments in the HBW Checklist, the Ornate Flycatcher, Myiotriccus ornatus, is split into

Former Myiophobus: The three former Myiophobus included in this subfamily are not closely related to the rest of Myiophobus. Ohlsson et al. (2009) created a new genus name for them, Nephelomyias.

Cliff Flycatcher Split: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) showing about 2 million years separation and the comments in the HBW Checklist, Cliff Flycatcher, Hirundinea ferruginea is split into

Cinnamon Flycatcher Split: Harvey et al. (2020) found distances of 5-7 million years between three subspecies of Cinnamon Flycatcher (Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus), including the two subspecies in Sucre, Venezuela. When combined with the information in the HBW Checklist, Cinnamon Flycatcher has been split into


Hirundineinae Tello et al., 2009

Myiotriccini: Ornate and Handsome Flycatchers Informal

  1. Eastern Ornate-Flycatcher, Myiotriccus phoenicurus
  2. Western Ornate-Flycatcher, Myiotriccus ornatus
  3. Handsome Flycatcher, Nephelomyias pulcher
  4. Orange-banded Flycatcher, Nephelomyias lintoni
  5. Ochraceous-breasted Flycatcher, Nephelomyias ochraceiventris

Hirundineini:Cliff and Cinnamon Flycatchers Tello et al., 2009

  1. Cliff Flycatcher, Hirundinea ferruginea
  2. Swallow Flycatcher, Hirundinea bellicosa
  3. Andean Cinnamon-Flycatcher, Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus
  4. Santa Marta Cinnamon-Flycatcher, Pyrrhomyias assimilis
  5. Venezuelan Cinnamon-Flycatcher, Pyrrhomyias vieillotioides
  6. Paria Cinnamon-Flycatcher, Pyrrhomyias pariae

Elaeniinae: Elaenine Flycatchers Cabanis & Heine, 1859-60

There are two tribes: Euscarthmini and Elaeniini.

Notes — Euscarthmini

Besides Harvey et al. (2020), the arrangement of species within Zimmerius is also based on Rheindt et al. (2008c, d, 2013). Based on Rheindt et al. (2013), Mistletoe Tyrannulet, Zimmerius parvus, Specious Tyrannulet, Zimmerius improbus (inc. tamae), and Venezuelan Tyrannulet, Zimmerius petersi, are split from Paltry Tyrannulet, Zimmerius vilissimus.

Coopmans's Tyrannulet, Zimmerius minimus, comprising minimus and cumanensis has somewhat speculatively been split from Golden-faced Tyrannulet, Zimmerius chrysops, based on comments in Rheindt et al., (2013). I continue include the Loja Tyrannulet, Zimmerius flavidifrons. but Rheindt et al., (2014) describe a mosiac population that is linked to both the Golden-faced and Peruvian Tyrannulets. It includes flavidifrons and an undescribed Peruvian population and may end up being lumped in with the Peruvian Tyrannulet. Thus the old chrysops with 5 subspecies has been divided among Coopmans's, Choco, Golden-faced, and Loja Tyrannulets. Finally, Chico's Tyrannulet, Zimmerius chicomendesi, newly described by Whitney et al., (2013c), has been added to the list.

Gray-capped Tyrannulet: The Gray-capped Tyrannulet, formerly Phyllomyias griseocapilla, has been transferred to Zimmerius. I dithered some on this.

Given that its common ancestor with the Zimmerius tyrannulets was about 8.7 mya, my first reaction was to list its genus as "Phyllomyias". I had only seen one once, back in 2010, and couldn't recall what it looked like. The illustration in the HBW Checklist didn't help, so I checked photos via Birds of the World. They didn't look much like the illustration, and showed a Zimmerius-like wing pattern. That impressed me enough to put it in Zimmerius instead.

Here's an excerpt from Traylor (1977) where he defines Zimmerius.

Diagnosis. Superficially most like Tyranniscus Cabanis and Heine, 1859, but differs as follows: has a unique wing pattern in which the median and greater coverts, the secondaries and four or five subexternal primaries are edged with yellow, while the outermost and four or five internal primaries are blackish, producing a black wedge when the wing is spread

Traylor named the genus after John Todd Zimmer partly because of his recognition of the unique wing pattern in the birds Traylor named Zimmerius.

Wagtail-Tyrants Split: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, there are two splits in the wagtail-tyrants (Stigmatura):

  • The Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura napensis, is split into
    1. Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura napensis
    2. Bahia Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura bahiae.
  • Greater Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura budytoides, is split into
    1. Greater Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura budytoides
    2. Caatinga Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura gracilis.

Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant: Following SACC #898 and Franz et al. (2020), the Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant, Euscarthmus meloryphus, has been split into

  • Tawny-fronted Pygmy-Tyrant, Euscarthmus fulviceps
  • Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant, Euscarthmus meloryphus.

Sixteen species of Phyllomyias tyrannulets were earlier separated from the main Phyllomyias group (part of Elaeniini) and placed variously in the revived genera Tyranniscus and Xanthomyias. I've also included five tyrannulets from Mercocerculus in Xanthomyias. This reduces Mercocerculus itself to a single species which belongs in Elaeniini.

Beardless-Tyrannulets: Based on Fitzpatrick (2004a), Rheindt et al. (2008d), Harvey et al. (2020), and the HBW Checklist, the Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma obsoletum, has been split into five species:

  • Western Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma sclateri, including maranonicum and griseum
  • Central American Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma flaviventre, including orphnum and majus
  • Colombian Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma pusillum, including napaeum and perhaps caucae
  • Olive Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma olivaceum, monotypic
  • Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma obsoletum, including bolivianum and cinerascens

Ever since I saw them in different parts of South America, I've wondered whether the Southern Beardless-Tyrannulets were all the same species. Looks unlikely now! The oldest branch is about 6 million years old. If you examine the tree, you'll see that the Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma imberbe is embedded in this group. I've used names from the HBW Checklist. Of them, the name Colombian Beardless-Tyrannulet is somewhat misleading as its range extends far eastward, including the Guianas and adjacent regions of Brazil north of the Amazon. Beardless-Tyrannulets in Maranhão east and south (cinerascens) are in the Southern group. Concerning caucae, see the speculation by Rheindt et al. (2008d). This group could use more study.


Notes — Elaeniini

Chapada Flycatcher: The Chapada Flycatcher, Suiriri affinis, is unrelated to the other Suiriri taxa and has been removed to Fluvicolini.

Nesotriccus: Zucker et al. (2016) found that Nesotriccus is embedded in Phaeomyias and that both are very closely related to Phyllomyias. Accordingly, I have merged Nesotriccus (Cocos Flycatcher) and Phaeomyias into Phyllomyias. It would not be unreasonable to go a step further and merge the monotypic Capsiempis with Phyllomyias. However, both names have equal priority and apparently need a first reviser action to decide between them. Since there's not a strong need to merge them, it can wait.

Mouse-colored Tyrannulet: Also based on Zucker et al. (2016), the Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, formerly Phaeomyias murina, has been split into Amazonian Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Phyllomyias murinus, including wagae, and Northern Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Phyllomyias incomtus, including eremonomus.

Straneck's Tyrannulet: Straneck's Tyrannulet / Gray-crowned Tyrannulet, Serpophaga griseicapilla, has had a somewhat checkered history. It was previously referred to as Serpophaga griseiceps, but the type of griseiceps was actually a juvenile of S. munda (Herzog and Mazur Barnett, 2004). Straneck (2007) gave it the name S. griseiceps. It has also been referred to as Gray-crowned Tyrannulet, and Monte Tyrannulet.

More Elaenias: The ordering within Elaenia itself is now based on Harvey et al. (2020), which has some minor differences from Tang et al. (2018), which I used previously. Rheindt et al. (2008b, 2009a) indicated that the Tepui Elaenia should be split from the Sierran Elaenia; the Greater Antillean Elaenia split into Sclater's Elaenia, Elaenia fallax, of Jamaica and the Hispaniolan Elaenia, Elaenia cherriei. Rheindt et al. (2008b, 2009a) also found evidence for splitting the Chilean Elaenia from the Sierran Elaenia, but the additional data studied by Tang et al. (2018) suggests they cannot be separated.

Although E. fallax used to be called Jamaican Elaenia, that name is now used for Myiopagis cotta, formerly known as the Cotta Flycatcher, after Cotta Wood, which was near Content, Jamaica.

Not all subspecies of the White-crested Elaenia group were analyzed, but the following is a plausible arrangement of the relevant subspecies: Tepui Elaenia, Elaenia olivina, includes davidwillardi and White-crested Elaenia, Elaenia albiceps, includes griseigularis, diversa, urubambae, and modesta. Although it was not part of Tang et al.'s analysis, modesta is distinctive. Harvey et al. (2020) did include one in their analysis, and I have used that to support a split. Finally, Tang et al. found that the subspecies sorida should be split from the Highland Elaenia E. obscura. This subspecies, has now been split as Small-headed Elaenia. Coopmans's Elaenia, Elaenia brachyptera, has been split from Lesser Elaenia, Elaenia chiriquensis, based on Rheindt et al. (2015). Finally, the Myiopagis Elaenias are organized as in Rheindt et al. (2008b, 2009a)

Gray Elaenia: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Gray Elaenia, Myiopagis caniceps has been split into three species:

  • Choco Gray Elaenia, Myiopagis parambae, includes absita
  • Amazonian Gray Elaenia, Myiopagis cinerea
  • Atlantic Gray Elaenia, Myiopagis caniceps

Greenish Elaenia: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Greenish Elaenia, Myiopagis viridicata has been split into two species:

  • West Mexican Elaenia, Myiopagis minima, including jaliscensis
  • Greenish Elaenia, Myiopagis viridicata, all other subspecies

Small-headed Elaenia: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), SACC #806, and SACC #813, the Highland Elaenia, Elaenia obscura, has been split into

  • Small-headed Elaenia, Elaenia sordida
  • Highland Elaenia, Elaenia obscura

White-crested Elaenia: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the White-crested Elaenia, Elaenia albiceps, has been split into three species:

  • White-crested Elaenia, Elaenia albiceps
  • Peruvian Elaenia, Elaenia modesta
  • Chilean Elaenia, Elaenia chilensis

I've gone back and forth on the Chilean Elaenia. Harvey et al. made clear that is it is genetically quite different from albiceps. I don't have any genetic information on the Peruvian Elaenia, but it seems like a good bet.

Ridgwayornis: I've separated two Serpophaga in genus Ridgwayornis (Bertoni 1925), type nigricans.

  • Torrent Tyrannulet, Serpophaga cinerea
  • Sooty Tyrannulet, Serpophaga nigricans

The two Tachuri (Polystictus): The Bearded Tachuri, Polystictus pectoralis, and Gray-backed Tachuri, Polystictus superciliaris, are not sister species. This forces the removal of the Gray-backed Tachuri to Serpophaga. Given the tree in Harvey et al. (2020) and the similarity of the two Tachuris, it makes sense to transfer both Polystictus to Serpophaga.


Elaeniinae: Elaenine Flycatchers Cabanis & Heine, 1859-60

Euscarthmini: Tyrannulets von Ihering, 1904

  1. Gray-capped Tyrannulet, Zimmerius griseocapilla
  2. Red-billed Tyrannulet, Zimmerius cinereicapilla
  3. Mishana Tyrannulet, Zimmerius villarejoi
  4. Chico's Tyrannulet, Zimmerius chicomendesi
  5. Spectacled Tyrannulet, Zimmerius improbus
  6. Venezuelan Tyrannulet, Zimmerius petersi
  7. Bolivian Tyrannulet, Zimmerius bolivianus
  8. Slender-footed Tyrannulet, Zimmerius gracilipes
  9. Guianan Tyrannulet, Zimmerius acer
  10. Paltry Tyrannulet / Guatemalan Tyrannulet, Zimmerius vilissimus
  11. Mistletoe Tyrannulet, Zimmerius parvus
  12. Coopmans's Tyrannulet, Zimmerius minimus
  13. Choco Tyrannulet, Zimmerius albigularis
  14. Golden-faced Tyrannulet, Zimmerius chrysops
  15. Loja Tyrannulet, Zimmerius flavidifrons
  16. Peruvian Tyrannulet, Zimmerius viridiflavus
  17. Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura napensis
  18. Caatinga Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura gracilis
  19. Greater Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura budytoides
  20. Bahia Wagtail-Tyrant, Stigmatura bahiae
  21. Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant, Euscarthmus meloryphus
  22. Tawny-fronted Pygmy-Tyrant, Euscarthmus fulviceps
  23. Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant, Euscarthmus rufomarginatus
  24. Pale-tipped Tyrannulet / Pale-tipped Inezia, Inezia caudata
  25. Amazonian Tyrannulet / Amazonian Inezia, Inezia subflava
  26. Slender-billed Tyrannulet / Slender-billed Inezia, Inezia tenuirostris
  27. Plain Tyrannulet / Plain Inezia, Inezia inornata
  28. Sulphur-bellied Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias minor
  29. Rufous-winged Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias calopterus
  30. White-banded Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias stictopterus
  31. Buff-banded Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias hellmayri
  32. White-tailed Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias poecilocercus
  33. Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias plumbeiceps
  34. Greenish Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias virescens
  35. Sclater's Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias sclateri
  36. Urich's Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias urichi
  37. Reiser's Tyrannulet, Xanthomyias reiseri
  38. White-fronted Tyrannulet, Tyranniscus zeledoni
  39. Rough-legged Tyrannulet, Tyranniscus burmeisteri
  40. Ashy-headed Tyrannulet, Tyranniscus cinereiceps
  41. Black-capped Tyrannulet, Tyranniscus nigrocapillus
  42. Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet, Tyranniscus uropygialis
  43. White-lored Tyrannulet, Ornithion inerme
  44. Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet, Ornithion semiflavum
  45. Brown-capped Tyrannulet, Ornithion brunneicapillus
  46. Western Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma sclateri
  47. Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma imberbe
  48. Central American Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma flaviventre
  49. Colombian Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma pusillum
  50. Olive Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma olivaceum
  51. Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma obsoletum

Elaeniini: Elaenias, Tit-Tyrants Cabanis & Heine, 1859-60

  1. Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet, Tyrannulus elatus
  2. Choco Gray Elaenia, Myiopagis parambae
  3. Foothill Elaenia, Myiopagis olallai
  4. Amazonian Gray Elaenia, Myiopagis cinerea
  5. Atlantic Gray Elaenia, Myiopagis caniceps
  6. Forest Elaenia, Myiopagis gaimardii
  7. Pacific Elaenia, Myiopagis subplacens
  8. Yellow-crowned Elaenia, Myiopagis flavivertex
  9. West Mexican Elaenia, Myiopagis minima
  10. Greenish Elaenia, Myiopagis viridicata
  11. Jamaican Elaenia, Myiopagis cotta
  12. Plain-crested Elaenia, Elaenia cristata
  13. Rufous-crowned Elaenia, Elaenia ruficeps
  14. Slaty Elaenia, Elaenia strepera
  15. Mottle-backed Elaenia, Elaenia gigas
  16. Small-headed Elaenia, Elaenia sordida
  17. Great Elaenia, Elaenia dayi
  18. Yellow-bellied Elaenia, Elaenia flavogaster
  19. Highland Elaenia, Elaenia obscura
  20. Small-billed Elaenia, Elaenia parvirostris
  21. Coopmans's Elaenia, Elaenia brachyptera
  22. Brownish Elaenia, Elaenia pelzelni
  23. Large Elaenia, Elaenia spectabilis
  24. Noronha Elaenia, Elaenia ridleyana
  25. Lesser Elaenia, Elaenia chiriquensis
  26. Olivaceous Elaenia, Elaenia mesoleuca
  27. Sierran Elaenia, Elaenia pallatangae
  28. White-crested Elaenia, Elaenia albiceps
  29. Peruvian Elaenia, Elaenia modesta
  30. Chilean Elaenia, Elaenia chilensis
  31. Tepui Elaenia, Elaenia olivina
  32. Mountain Elaenia, Elaenia frantzii
  33. Caribbean Elaenia, Elaenia martinica
  34. Sclater's Elaenia, Elaenia fallax
  35. Hispaniolan Elaenia, Elaenia cherriei
  36. Suiriri Flycatcher, Suiriri suiriri
  37. Gray-and-white Tyrannulet, Pseudelaenia leucospodia
  38. Yellow Tyrannulet, Capsiempis flaveola
  39. Sooty-headed Tyrannulet, Phyllomyias griseiceps
  40. Yungas Tyrannulet, Phyllomyias weedeni
  41. Planalto Tyrannulet, Phyllomyias fasciatus
  42. Tumbesian Tyrannulet, Phyllomyias tumbezanus
  43. Amazonian Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Phyllomyias murinus
  44. Cocos Flycatcher, Phyllomyias ridgwayi
  45. Northern Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Phyllomyias incomtus
  46. White-throated Tyrannulet, Mecocerculus leucophrys
  47. Sharp-tailed Tyrant / Sharp-tailed Grass-Tyrant, Culicivora caudacuta
  48. Torrent Tyrannulet, Ridgwayornis cinereus
  49. Sooty Tyrannulet, Ridgwayornis nigricans
  50. Crested Doradito, Pseudocolopteryx sclateri
  51. Subtropical Doradito, Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis
  52. Dinelli's Doradito, Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana
  53. Ticking Doradito, Pseudocolopteryx citreola
  54. Warbling Doradito, Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris
  55. Bearded Tachuri, Serpophaga pectoralis
  56. Gray-backed Tachuri, Serpophaga superciliaris
  57. Straneck's Tyrannulet / Gray-crowned Tyrannulet, Serpophaga griseicapilla
  58. River Tyrannulet, Serpophaga hypoleuca
  59. White-bellied Tyrannulet, Serpophaga munda
  60. White-crested Tyrannulet, Serpophaga subcristata
  61. Agile Tit-Tyrant, Uromyias agilis
  62. Unstreaked Tit-Tyrant, Uromyias agraphia
  63. Black-crested Tit-Tyrant, Anairetes nigrocristatus
  64. Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant, Anairetes reguloides
  65. Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrant, Anairetes alpinus
  66. Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant, Anairetes flavirostris
  67. Tufted Tit-Tyrant, Anairetes parulus
  68. Juan Fernandez Tit-Tyrant, Anairetes fernandezianus

Tyranninae: Tyrant Flycatchers Vigors, 1825

The subfamily Tyranninae is now divided into three tribes: Ramphotrigonini, Myiarchini, and Tyrannini.

Notes — Myiarchini

Pale-bellied Mourner: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), the Pale-bellied Mourner, Rhytipterna immunda has been transferred to the genus Casiornis.

Grayish Mourner: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), the Grayish Mourner, Rhytipterna simplex, is split into:

  • Amazonian Grayish Mourner, Rhytipterna frederici
  • Atlantic Grayish Mourner, Rhytipterna simplex

The reason for the split is that the Atlantic Grayish Mourner's closest relative is the Rufous Mourner, Rhytipterna holerythra.

Rufous Flycatcher: The Rufous Flycatcher, Myiarchus semirufus, has been transferred to the monotypic genus Muscifur (Bangs and Penard, 1921). While the other Myiarchus have a common ancestor a bit over 4 million years ago, their common ancestor with the Rufous Flycatcher is close to 8 mya. Moreover, with its dark cap and rufous coloration, the Rufous Flycatcher looks a little bit like a Casiornis and a little bit like a Sirystes. I'm happier having it in its own genus.

Myiarchus: The arrangement of Myiarchus is based on Harvey et al. (2020), with some help from Joseph et al. (2004) and Sari and Parker (2012). They later two note some issues within Myiarchus. They may represent incompelete lineage sorting, species boundaries that need to be redrawn, or even cryptic species. One such involves La Sagra's and Stolid Flycatchers, which seem to be mutually paraphyletic (Joseph et al. 2004). Other such problems exist for ferox, phaeocephalus, swainsoni, and tuberculifer.

Nutting's Flycatcher: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, Nutting's Flycatcher, Myiarchus nuttingi, has been split into:

  • Nutting's Flycatcher, Myiarchus nuttingi, including inquietus
  • Ridgway's Flycatcher, Myiarchus flavidior

Brown-crested Flycatcher: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), Joseph et al. (2004), and Sari and Parker (2012), I've split the Brown-crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus tyrannulus, into two species:

  • Northern Brown-crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus cooperi, including magister, cozumelae, insularum, and brachyurus.
  • Southern Brown-crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus tyrannulus, including bahiae

The HBW Checklist mentions three subspecies groups within cooperi. Combining Joseph et al. and Sari and Parker suggests that the northern group forms a clade (neither paper includes all the pieces). The splits made are due to the relation with the Granada and Galapagos Flycatchers per Harvey et al. The genetic distance is in the ambiguous range for splits, so I have not adopted any others.

Sirystes: Based on Donegan (2013), Sirystes, Sirystes sibilator, has been split into:

  • Choco Sirystes, Sirystes albogriseus
  • Todd's Sirystes, Sirystes subcanescens
  • White-rumped Sirystes, Sirystes albocinereus
  • Sibilant Sirystes, Sirystes sibilator

Notes — Tyrannini

Lesser Kiskadee: I've put the Lesser Kiskadee in Philohydor as it appears to not be on the same branch as Pitangus. They are different branches in Harvey et al. (2020). They are sister species in Tello et al. (2009), but the support is not great and Chaves et al. (2008) has them separated.

Milvulus: I've also separated the Fork-tailed Flycatcher in Milvulus based on Tello et al. (2009). Once it is out of Tyrannus it reclaims its old name and becomes Milvulus tyrannus, not Milvulus savana.

Loggerhead Kingbird: Based on Garrido et al. (2009), the Loggerhead Kingbird has been split into three species:

  • Western Loggerhead Kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
  • Hispaniolan Kingbird, Tyrannus gabbii
  • Puerto Rican Kingbird, Tyrannus taylori

The three are easily distinguished by their calls, or with a little care, by their plumage.

Streaked Flycatcher: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, and presuming their maculatus sample from Loreto is a wintering solitarius (otherwise, even more revision is needed), the Streaked Flycatcher, Myiodynastes maculatus, is split into two species:

  • Northern Streaked-Flycatcher, Myiodynastes maculatus
  • Southern Streaked-Flycatcher, Myiodynastes solitarius (monotypic)

PS. Still waiting for the Island Streaked-Flycatcher to be described…


Tyranninae: Tyrant Flycatchers Vigors, 1825

Ramphotrigonini: Flatbills Informal

  1. Large-headed Flatbill, Ramphotrigon megacephalum
  2. Rufous-tailed Flatbill, Ramphotrigon ruficauda
  3. Flammulated Flycatcher, Ramphotrigon flammulatum
  4. Dusky-tailed Flatbill, Ramphotrigon fuscicauda

Myiarchini: Myiarchus Flycatchers von Berlepsch, 1907

  1. Choco Sirystes, Sirystes albogriseus
  2. Todd's Sirystes, Sirystes subcanescens
  3. White-rumped Sirystes, Sirystes albocinereus
  4. Sibilant Sirystes, Sirystes sibilator
  5. Amazonian Grayish Mourner, Rhytipterna frederici
  6. Rufous Mourner, Rhytipterna holerythra
  7. Atlantic Grayish Mourner, Rhytipterna simplex
  8. Pale-bellied Mourner, Casiornis immunda
  9. Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus
  10. Ash-throated Casiornis, Casiornis fuscus
  11. Rufous Flycatcher, Muscifur semirufus
  12. Swainson's Flycatcher, Myiarchus swainsoni
  13. Dusky-capped Flycatcher, Myiarchus tuberculifer
  14. Sad Flycatcher, Myiarchus barbirostris
  15. Venezuelan Flycatcher, Myiarchus venezuelensis
  16. Pale-edged Flycatcher, Myiarchus cephalotes
  17. Apical Flycatcher, Myiarchus apicalis
  18. Sooty-crowned Flycatcher, Myiarchus phaeocephalus
  19. Panama Flycatcher / Panamanian Flycatcher, Myiarchus panamensis
  20. Short-crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus ferox
  21. Rufous-tailed Flycatcher, Myiarchus validus
  22. Yucatan Flycatcher, Myiarchus yucatanensis
  23. Ash-throated Flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens
  24. Nutting's Flycatcher, Myiarchus nuttingi
  25. Ridgway's Flycatcher, Myiarchus flavidior
  26. Northern Brown-crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus cooperi
  27. Galapagos Flycatcher, Myiarchus magnirostris
  28. Southern Brown-crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus tyrannulus
  29. Grenada Flycatcher, Myiarchus nugator
  30. Great Crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus
  31. La Sagra's Flycatcher, Myiarchus sagrae
  32. Stolid Flycatcher, Myiarchus stolidus
  33. Puerto Rican Flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum
  34. Lesser Antillean Flycatcher, Myiarchus oberi

Tyrannini: Tyrant Flycatchers Vigors, 1825

  1. Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophaius
  2. Bright-rumped Attila, Attila spadiceus
  3. Cinnamon Attila, Attila cinnamomeus
  4. Rufous-tailed Attila, Attila phoenicurus
  5. Ochraceous Attila, Attila torridus
  6. Citron-bellied Attila, Attila citriniventris
  7. Dull-capped Attila / White-eyed Attila, Attila bolivianus
  8. Gray-hooded Attila, Attila rufus
  9. Cattle Tyrant, Machetornis rixosa
  10. Lesser Kiskadee, Philohydor lictor
  11. Great Kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus
  12. Rusty-margined Flycatcher, Myiozetetes cayanensis
  13. Social Flycatcher, Myiozetetes similis
  14. Gray-capped Flycatcher, Myiozetetes granadensis
  15. Dusky-chested Flycatcher, Myiozetetes luteiventris
  16. Baird's Flycatcher, Myiodynastes bairdii
  17. Golden-bellied Flycatcher, Myiodynastes hemichrysus
  18. Golden-crowned Flycatcher, Myiodynastes chrysocephalus
  19. Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher, Myiodynastes luteiventris
  20. Northern Streaked-Flycatcher, Myiodynastes maculatus
  21. Southern Streaked-Flycatcher, Myiodynastes solitarius
  22. Boat-billed Flycatcher, Megarynchus pitangua
  23. Sulphury Flycatcher, Tyrannopsis sulphurea
  24. White-ringed Flycatcher, Conopias albovittatus
  25. Yellow-throated Flycatcher, Conopias parvus
  26. Lemon-browed Flycatcher, Conopias cinchoneti
  27. Three-striped Flycatcher, Conopias trivirgatus
  28. Variegated Flycatcher, Empidonomus varius
  29. Crowned Slaty Flycatcher, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus
  30. Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Milvulus tyrannus
  31. White-throated Kingbird, Tyrannus albogularis
  32. Tropical Kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus
  33. Gray Kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
  34. Giant Kingbird, Tyrannus cubensis
  35. Snowy-throated Kingbird, Tyrannus niveigularis
  36. Western Loggerhead Kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
  37. Hispaniolan Kingbird, Tyrannus gabbii
  38. Puerto Rican Kingbird, Tyrannus taylori
  39. Thick-billed Kingbird, Tyrannus crassirostris
  40. Couch's Kingbird, Tyrannus couchii
  41. Eastern Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus
  42. Cassin's Kingbird, Tyrannus vociferans
  43. Western Kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis
  44. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus

Fluvicolinae: Fluvicoline Flycatchers Swainson, 1832-33

The subfamily Fluvicolinae is divided into five tribes, the monotypic Muscigrallini, Ochthoecini, Fluvicolini, Contopini, and Taeniopterini.

Notes — Ochthoecini

Previous editions of the TiF list had separated Silvicultrix from Ochthoeca. It remains a good idea! The genus Tumbezia was merged into Ochthoeca, with Ohlson et al. (2013) pushing me over the line on this.

"Myiophobus": The temporary genus name "Myiophobus" has been replaced by Scotomyias (Ohlson et al., 2020).

Flavescent Flycatcher: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW CHecklist, the Flavescent Flycatcher, Scotomyias flavicans, is split into:

  • Flavescent Flycatcher, Scotomyias flavicans
  • Haughty Flycatcher, Scotomyias superciliosus (monotypic)

Yes, I made up the name Haughty Flycatcher. It seemed too good to resist.

Chat-Tyrants: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW CHecklist, the Crowned Chat-Tyrant, Silvicultrix frontalis, has been split into

  • Crowned Chat-Tyrant, Silvicultrix frontalis, including albidiadema
  • Kalinowski's Chat-Tyrant, Silvicultrix spodionota, including boliviana

Previously, I split the Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris into:

  • Maroon-belted Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca thoracica
  • Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris
  • Blackish Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca nigrita

This was based on a combination of Fjeldså et al. (2018), Ridgely and Greenfield (2001), Hilty (2003), and Garcia-Moreno et al. (1998). This is also supported by Harvey et al. (2020), where the three cinnamomeiventris in their tree are the three species.


Notes — Fluvicolini

Following Fjeldså et al. (2018), I've included Colonia here, as well as the Black-and-white Monjita, now called Heteroxolmis dominicanus, previously in genus Xolmis. There is one other addition. The Chapada Flycatcher, formerly Suiriri affinis (not S. islerorum, see Kirwan et al., 2014a) is not related to Suiriri. Rather, Lopes et al. (2018) found it is sister to Sublegatus. Lopes et al. established a new genus for it, Guyramemua, so the Chapada Flycatcher becomes Guyramemua affine and moves from Elaeniini to Fluvicolini.

Vermilion Flycatcher: Based on Carmi et al. (2016), the Vermilion Flycatcher, formerly Pyrocephalus rubinus, has been split into four species:

  • Vermilion Flycatcher, now called Pyrocephalus obscurus
  • Scarlet Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus rubinus
  • Darwin's Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus nanus
  • the extinct San Cristobal Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus dubius

Notes — Contopini

Tufted Flycatcher: Based on Harvey et al., (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Tufted Flycatcher, Mitrephanes phaeocercus, has been split into:

  • Mexican Tufted-Flycatcher, Mitrephanes phaeocercus, including tenuirostris
  • Costa Rican Tufted-Flycatcher, Mitrephanes aurantiiventris
  • Choco Tufted-Flycatcher, Mitrephanes berlepschi including eminulus

Two of the three species were included in Harvey et al. (2020).

Pewees: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW CHecklist, the Tropical Pewee, Contopus cinereus, has been split into

  • Northern Tropical Pewee, Contopus bogotensis
  • Tumbes Pewee, Contopus punensis
  • Southern Tropical Pewee, Contopus cinereus.

Notes — Taeniopterini

The more complete taxon sampling by Fjeldså et al. (2018) has forced a split-up of the genus Xolmis. Besides sending the Black-and-white Monjita to the Fluvicolini (Heteroxolmis), The Fire-eyed Diucon, now Pyrope pyrope, moves to Pyrope. I've also moved the Black-crowned Monjita, Neoxolmis coronatus, Rusty-backed Monjita, Neoxolmis rubetra, and Salinas Monjita, Neoxolmis salinarum, to Neoxolmis from Xolmis. Finally, the Gray Monjita, now Nengetus cinereus, has been placed in Nengetus (Swainson 1827). It had historically been in the genus Taenioptera (Bonaparte 1825), of which it is the type. However, although Bonaparte alluded to Taenioptera as a subgenus in 1825, he did not actually establish the name until 1830. Thus Nengetus has priority and Taenioptera is a junior synonym.

Taeniopterini replaces Xolmiini/Xolmini: Besides naming the genus Taenioptera, Bonaparte also created a valid subfamily name based on Taenioptera Taeniopterinae in 1838, which we use in the form Taeniopterini for this tribe. The type species for Bonaparte's Taeniopterinae is Nengetus cinereus = Tyrannus cinereus Vieillot 1816 = Muscicapa taenioptera Bonaparte 1825. This means Taeniopterini has priority over the recent Xolmini (Xolmiini).

Little Ground-Tyrant: The Little Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola fluviatilis, has been transferred to genus Syrtidicola, (Chesser et al., 2020b).
[Fluvicolinae, Tyrannida II, 3.07]

Black-Tyrants: Since Eumyiobius would be embedded in Knipolegus, it has been merged into Knipolegus. Hosner and Moyle's (2012) results provide support for treating Caatinga Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus franciscanus, as a separate species from White-winged Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus aterrimus, and also Plumbeous Tyrant, Knipolegus cabanisi, separate from Jelski's Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus signatus.

Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW CHecklist, the White-winged Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus aterrimus, has been split into:

  • White-rumped Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus heterogyna (monotypic)
  • White-winged Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus aterrimus

Harvey et al. (2020) found that they are not even sister species.


Fluvicolinae: Fluvicoline Flycatchers Swainson, 1832-33

Muscigrallini: Field Tyrant Ohlson et al., 2013

  1. Short-tailed Field Tyrant, Muscigralla brevicauda

Ochthoecini: Chat-Tyrants Ohlson et al., 2020

  1. Bran-colored Flycatcher, Myiophobus fasciatus
  2. Olive-chested Flycatcher, Myiophobus cryptoxanthus
  3. Orange-crested Flycatcher, Scotomyias phoenicomitra
  4. Roraiman Flycatcher, Scotomyias roraimae
  5. Flavescent Flycatcher, Scotomyias flavicans
  6. Haughty Flycatcher, Scotomyias superciliosus
  7. Unadorned Flycatcher, Scotomyias inornatus
  8. Crowned Chat-Tyrant, Silvicultrix frontalis
  9. Kalinowski's Chat-Tyrant, Silvicultrix spodionota
  10. Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant, Silvicultrix diadema
  11. Jelski's Chat-Tyrant, Silvicultrix jelskii
  12. Golden-browed Chat-Tyrant, Silvicultrix pulchella
  13. Patagonian Tyrant, Colorhamphus parvirostris
  14. Tumbes Tyrant, Ochthoeca salvini
  15. Maroon-belted Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca thoracica
  16. Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca fumicolor
  17. Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris
  18. Blackish Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca nigrita
  19. Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca rufipectoralis
  20. Piura Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca piurae
  21. White-browed Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca leucophrys
  22. d'Orbigny's Chat-Tyrant, Ochthoeca oenanthoides

Fluvicolini: Fluvicoline Flycatchers Swainson, 1832-33

  1. White-bearded Flycatcher, Phelpsia inornata
  2. Chapada Flycatcher, Guyramemua affine
  3. Southern Scrub-Flycatcher, Sublegatus modestus
  4. Northern Scrub-Flycatcher, Sublegatus arenarum
  5. Amazonian Scrub-Flycatcher, Sublegatus obscurior
  6. Long-tailed Tyrant, Colonia colonus
  7. White-headed Marsh Tyrant, Arundinicola leucocephala
  8. Masked Water-Tyrant, Fluvicola nengeta
  9. Pied Water-Tyrant, Fluvicola pica
  10. Black-backed Water-Tyrant, Fluvicola albiventer
  11. Vermilion Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus obscurus
  12. Scarlet Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus rubinus
  13. Darwin's Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus nanus
  14. †San Cristobal Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus dubius
  15. Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant, Muscipipra vetula
  16. Streamer-tailed Tyrant, Gubernetes yetapa
  17. Black-and-white Monjita, Heteroxolmis dominicanus
  18. Cock-tailed Tyrant, Alectrurus tricolor
  19. Strange-tailed Tyrant, Alectrurus risora

Contopini: Pewees, Phoebes, Empids Fitzpatrick, 2004

  1. Drab Water Tyrant, Ochthornis littoralis
  2. Fuscous Flycatcher, Cnemotriccus fuscatus
  3. Tawny-chested Flycatcher, Aphanotriccus capitalis
  4. Black-billed Flycatcher, Aphanotriccus audax
  5. Euler's Flycatcher, Lathrotriccus euleri
  6. Gray-breasted Flycatcher, Lathrotriccus griseipectus
  7. Pileated Flycatcher, Xenotriccus mexicanus
  8. Belted Flycatcher, Xenotriccus callizonus
  9. Say's Phoebe, Sayornis saya
  10. Eastern Phoebe, Sayornis phoebe
  11. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  12. Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens
  13. White-throated Flycatcher, Empidonax albigularis
  14. Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum
  15. Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii
  16. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris
  17. Yellowish Flycatcher, Empidonax flavescens
  18. Pacific-slope Flycatcher, Empidonax difficilis
  19. Cordilleran Flycatcher, Empidonax occidentalis
  20. Hammond's Flycatcher, Empidonax hammondii
  21. Dusky Flycatcher / American Dusky Flycatcher, Empidonax oberholseri
  22. Pine Flycatcher, Empidonax affinis
  23. Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
  24. Gray Flycatcher / American Gray Flycatcher, Empidonax wrightii
  25. Buff-breasted Flycatcher, Empidonax fulvifrons
  26. Black-capped Flycatcher, Empidonax atriceps
  27. Mexican Tufted-Flycatcher, Mitrephanes phaeocercus
  28. Costa Rican-Tufted Flycatcher, Mitrephanes aurantiiventris
  29. Choco Tufted-Flycatcher, Mitrephanes berlepschi
  30. Olive Flycatcher / Olive Tufted-Flycatcher, Mitrephanes olivaceus
  31. Olive-sided Flycatcher, Contopus cooperi
  32. Ochraceous Pewee, Contopus ochraceus
  33. Greater Pewee, Contopus pertinax
  34. Dark Pewee, Contopus lugubris
  35. Smoke-colored Pewee, Contopus fumigatus
  36. Jamaican Pewee, Contopus pallidus
  37. Tumbes Pewee, Contopus punensis
  38. White-throated Pewee, Contopus albogularis
  39. Blackish Pewee, Contopus nigrescens
  40. Southern Tropical Pewee, Contopus cinereus
  41. Western Wood-Pewee, Contopus sordidulus
  42. Northern Tropical Pewee, Contopus bogotensis
  43. Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens
  44. Lesser Antillean Pewee, Contopus latirostris
  45. Cuban Pewee, Contopus caribaeus
  46. Hispaniolan Pewee, Contopus hispaniolensis

Taeniopterini: Monjitas, and Ground, Black, and Bush Tyrants Bonaparte, 1838

  1. Yellow-browed Tyrant, Satrapa icterophrys
  2. Little Ground-Tyrant, Syrtidicola fluviatilis
  3. Spot-billed Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola maculirostris
  4. White-fronted Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola albifrons
  5. Ochre-naped Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola flavinucha
  6. Plain-capped Ground-Tyrant / Paramo Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola alpinus
  7. Taczanowski's Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola griseus
  8. Rufous-naped Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola rufivertex
  9. Cinereous Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola cinereus
  10. Dark-faced Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola maclovianus
  11. White-browed Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola albilora
  12. Cinnamon-bellied Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola capistratus
  13. Puna Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola juninensis
  14. Black-fronted Ground-Tyrant, Muscisaxicola frontalis
  15. Andean Negrito, Lessonia oreas
  16. Austral Negrito, Lessonia rufa
  17. Spectacled Tyrant, Hymenops perspicillatus
  18. Blue-billed Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus cyanirostris
  19. Plumbeous Tyrant, Knipolegus cabanisi
  20. Jelski's Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus signatus
  21. White-rumped Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus heterogyna
  22. Cinereous Tyrant, Knipolegus striaticeps
  23. White-winged Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus aterrimus
  24. Hudson's Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus hudsoni
  25. Rufous-tailed Tyrant, Knipolegus poecilurus
  26. Amazonian Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus poecilocercus
  27. Riverside Tyrant, Knipolegus orenocensis
  28. Crested Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus lophotes
  29. Caatinga Black-Tyrant / Sao Francisco Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus franciscanus
  30. Velvety Black-Tyrant, Knipolegus nigerrimus
  31. Red-rumped Bush-Tyrant, Cnemarchus erythropygius
  32. Rufous-webbed Bush-Tyrant, Polioxolmis rufipennis
  33. White-rumped Monjita, Xolmis velatus
  34. White Monjita, Xolmis irupero
  35. Chocolate-vented Tyrant, Neoxolmis rufiventris
  36. Fire-eyed Diucon, Pyrope pyrope
  37. Gray Monjita, Nengetus cinereus
  38. Black-crowned Monjita, Neoxolmis coronatus
  39. Salinas Monjita, Neoxolmis salinarum
  40. Rusty-backed Monjita, Neoxolmis rubetra
  41. Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant, Myiotheretes striaticollis
  42. Rufous-bellied Bush-Tyrant, Myiotheretes fuscorufus
  43. Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant, Myiotheretes pernix
  44. Smoky Bush-Tyrant, Myiotheretes fumigatus
  45. Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant, Agriornis montanus
  46. Lesser Shrike-Tyrant, Agriornis murinus
  47. White-tailed Shrike-Tyrant, Agriornis albicauda
  48. Gray-bellied Shrike-Tyrant, Agriornis micropterus
  49. Great Shrike-Tyrant, Agriornis lividus

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