Furnariida

Passeriformes

Tyranni: Suboscines

Passeri: Oscines

Passerida

Sylvioidea
Muscicapoidea and allies
Passeroidea

The 46 Orders

Paleognathae

Galloanserae

Columbimorphae

Otidimorphae

Strisores

Opisthocomiformes

Gruiformes

Mirandornithes

Ardeae

Charadriiformes

Telluraves

Afroaves

Australaves

Grallariidae: Antpittas Sclater and Salvin, 1873 (1872)

Notes — Grallariidae

Click for Grallariidae tree
Click for Grallariidae
species

Antpitta Subfamilies: I've used three subfamilies to organize the antpittas: Myrmotherinae, Grallariinae, and Hypsibemonidae. Each corresponds to a split that occurred over 20 million years ago. I have not added tribes, which could be reasonably assigned to coincide with the genera.

Genus changes: I have made several changes to the genera in order to make sure that the deepest divisions are reflected in the generic structure as much as possible. More precisely, each side of any division deeper than 16 mya gets at least one genus. In fact, there is only one genus that spans a division deeper than 13 mya (Hylopezus).

To accomplish this, we have transferred three Hylopezus antpittas to Myrmothera, many of the Grallaria are now in Hypsibemon (Cabanis 1847, type ruficapilla), and the first four Hypsibemon have been moved to Oropezus.

Speckle-breasted Antpitta: Based on Carneiro, Bravo and Aleixo (2019), the Speckle-breasted Antpitta, Hylopezus nattereri, has been transferred to the genus Cryptopezus. It is the basal branch in Myrmotherinae. It's common ancestor with the rest of Myrmotherinae lived roughly 19.5 mya according to Harvey et al. (2020).

Rusty-breasted Antpitta: Based on Van Doren et al. (2018) and SACC #784 and SACC #801, the Rusty-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula ferrugineipectus, is split into:

Thrush-like Antpitta: Based on Carneiro et al. (2018) and SACC #785, the Thrush-like Antpitta, Myrmothera campanisona, has been split into:

Spotted Antpitta: It has been suspected that the Spotted Antpitta is more than one species (Ridgely and Tudor, 1994; Hilty, 2003; Krabbe and Schulenberg, 2003). Carneiro et al. (2012) made a close study of this. Based on their results, the Spotted Antpitta, Hylopezus macularius, has been split into three species:

The subspecies names differ a bit from HBW-8 (Krabbe and Schulenberg, 2003), but match the HBW Checklist.

Carneiro et al. (2012) suggested one more split, Zimmer's Antpitta, Hylopezus dilutus. They resurrected the name dilutus, previously considered a junior synonym of paraensis. They also submerged diversus into dilutus. However, it remains unsupported by sufficient genetic or vocal evidence, and we will pass on that one pending additional information. See also see SACC #622, which also describes the ranges of the three species.

Variegated Antpitta: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Variegated Antpitta, Grallaria varia, has been split into:

Rufous Antpitta complex: The Rufous Antpitta project has finally paid off. Based on SACC #883, Chesser et al. (2020a) and Isler et al. (2020) the Rufous Antpitta complex (Rufous, Bicolored, Chestnut) is split as follows: Chestnut Antpitta, Oropezus blakei, is split into:

Rufous Antpitta, Oropezus rufulus, is split into 12 species:

This involved the naming of several new taxa: alvarezi (Cuervo, Cadena, Isler, & Chesser), gravesi (Isler, Chesser, Robbins & Hosne), oneilli (Chesser & Isler), centralis and ayacuchensis (Hosner, Robbins, Isler, & Chesser), marcapatensis (Isler & Chesser), and sinaensis (Robbins, Isler, Chesser, & Tobias).

Urrao Antpitta: The Urrao Antpitta, Grallaria urraoensis, has been named twice. The first formal description was by Barrera and Bartels (2010) using the name Grallaria fenwickorum. The SACC considers this description inadequate, (SACC #479B). They rely on the description by the original discoverers in Carantón and Certuche (2010), who use the name Grallaria urraoensis. There are allegations and controversy surrounding the unfortunate circumstances that led to the two different names. I won't further comment on that. Normally, the name Grallaria fenwickorum would have priority, being published first. However, since the SACC considers the proposed type speciment to be inadequate to identify the bird, they use the second published name, urraoensis. I follow the SACC decision in this matter.

Grallariidae: Antpittas Sclater and Salvin, 1873 (1872)

7 genera, 69 species Not HBW Family

Myrmotherinae MacGillivray, 1839

  1. Speckle-breasted Antpitta, Cryptopezus nattereri
  2. Sucre Antpitta, Grallaricula cumanensis
  3. Slate-crowned Antpitta / Slaty-crowned Antpitta, Grallaricula nana
  4. Rusty-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula ferrugineipectus
  5. Crescent-faced Antpitta, Grallaricula lineifrons
  6. Rufous-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula leymebambae
  7. Ochre-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula flavirostris
  8. Peruvian Antpitta, Grallaricula peruviana
  9. Hooded Antpitta, Grallaricula cucullata
  10. Scallop-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula loricata
  11. Ochre-fronted Antpitta, Grallaricula ochraceifrons
  12. White-lored Antpitta, Myrmothera fulviventris
  13. Amazonian Antpitta, Myrmothera berlepschi
  14. Thicket Antpitta, Myrmothera dives
  15. Thrush-like Antpitta, Myrmothera campanisona
  16. Tepui Antpitta, Myrmothera simplex
  17. Tapajos Antpitta, Myrmothera subcanescens
  18. Masked Antpitta, Hylopezus auricularis
  19. White-browed Antpitta, Hylopezus ochroleucus
  20. Streak-chested Antpitta, Hylopezus perspicillatus
  21. Spotted Antpitta, Hylopezus macularius
  22. Alta Floresta Antpitta, Hylopezus whittakeri
  23. Snethlage's Antpitta, Hylopezus paraensis

Grallariinae Sclater and Salvin, 1873 (1872)

  1. Undulated Antpitta, Grallaria squamigera
  2. Great Antpitta, Grallaria excelsa
  3. Giant Antpitta, Grallaria gigantea
  4. Gray-naped Antpitta, Grallaria griseonucha
  5. Plain-backed Antpitta, Grallaria haplonota
  6. Moustached Antpitta, Grallaria alleni
  7. Scaled Antpitta, Grallaria guatimalensis
  8. Tachira Antpitta, Grallaria chthonia
  9. Northern Variegated Antpitta, Grallaria varia
  10. Southern Variegated Antpitta, Grallaria imperator

Hypsibemonidae Sundevall, 1872

  1. Stripe-headed Antpitta, Oropezus andicolus
  2. Sierra Nevada Antpitta, Oropezus spatiator
  3. Perija Antpitta, Oropezus saltuensis
  4. Bicolored Antpitta, Oropezus rufocinereus
  5. Muisca Antpitta, Oropezus rufulus
  6. Oxapampa Antpitta, Oropezus centralis
  7. Ayacucho Antpitta, Oropezus ayacuchensis
  8. Urubamba Antpitta, Oropezus occabambae
  9. Puno Antpitta, Oropezus sinaensis
  10. Bolivian Antpitta, Oropezus cochabambae
  11. Cajamarca Antpitta, Oropezus cajamarcae
  12. Chami Antpitta, Oropezus alvarezi
  13. Equatorial Antpitta, Oropezus saturatus
  14. Chestnut Antpitta, Oropezus blakei
  15. Graves's Antpitta, Oropezus gravesi
  16. O'Neill's Antpitta, Oropezus oneilli
  17. Junin Antpitta, Oropezus obscurus
  18. Elusive Antpitta, Hypsibemon eludens
  19. Ochre-striped Antpitta, Hypsibemon dignissimus
  20. Jocotoco Antpitta, Hypsibemon ridgelyi
  21. Chestnut-naped Antpitta, Hypsibemon nuchalis
  22. Pale-billed Antpitta, Hypsibemon carrikeri
  23. White-throated Antpitta, Hypsibemon albigula
  24. Chestnut-crowned Antpitta, Hypsibemon ruficapilla
  25. Watkins's Antpitta, Hypsibemon watkinsi
  26. Yellow-breasted Antpitta, Hypsibemon flavotinctus
  27. Santa Marta Antpitta, Hypsibemon bangsi
  28. Cundinamarca Antpitta, Hypsibemon kaestneri
  29. Urrao Antpitta, Hypsibemon urraoensis
  30. Brown-banded Antpitta, Hypsibemon milleri
  31. Tawny Antpitta, Hypsibemon quitensis
  32. White-bellied Antpitta, Hypsibemon hypoleucus
  33. Red-and-white Antpitta, Hypsibemon erythroleucus
  34. Rufous-faced Antpitta, Hypsibemon erythrotis
  35. Rusty-tinged Antpitta, Hypsibemon przewalskii
  36. Bay Antpitta, Hypsibemon capitalis

Rhinocryptidae: Tapaculos Wetmore, 1926 (1837)

Notes — Rhinocryptidae

Click for Rhinocryptidae tree
Click for Rhinocryptidae
species

Tapaculo Subfamilies: The overall structure of the Rhinocryptidae comes from Harvey et al. (2020). There are several deep division within Rhinocryptidae. The subfamilies Pteroptochinae, Lioscelinae, Rhinocryptinae, and Scytalopodinae represent the deepest divisions in the tapaculo family. According to Harvey et al., these occurred between 20 and 24 million years ago.

I also divided the relatively speciose subfamily Scytalopodinae into two tribes, Merulaxini and Scytalopodini, each with an age of about 17.4 million years. I did not divide the smaller subfamiles into tribes. There's no deep division within Pteroptochinae. Tribes coincide with genera in the other two subfamilies.

When considering species, the Harvey et al. (2020) phylogeny has been augmented by Cadena et al. (2020), Krabbe et al. (2020), and Stiles et al. (2017) to include all of the currently recognized Scytalopus.

The relatively narrow age range for the subfamilies has made it a little difficult to place them correctly. The same groups appeared in Maurício et al. (2008), Moyle et al. (2009), and Ericson et al. (2010), but in somewhat different order. The paper by Ericson et al. was important as it put together all of the genera that comprise the Rhinocryptidae, excluding all pretenders such as the crescent-chests.

An alternative is the morphological phylogeny used by Maurício et al. (2012) which does not match the Harvey et al. phylogeny used here (nor that of Moyle et al., 2009; nor Ericson et al., 2010). I consider that an artifact of their morphological analysis, and find it unsurprising. One big problem with using morphology is that the characters used in the analysis are subject to a lot of convergence for functional reasons even if they are genetically different.

Eleoscytalopus: In version 2.04, the White-breasted and Bahia Tapaculos were moved out of Scytalopus into a new genus, Eleoscytalopus (see Maurício et al., 2008).

Scytalopus: The removal of Eleoscytalopus makes Scytalopus a recent radiation. The common ancestor of the Scytalopus tapaculos lived a mean 6.5 mya. In that 6.5 million years, the ancestral Scytalopus has turned into at least 49 species, and there are more to be added once the fieldwork is done. This genus is one of the great speciators!

Boa Nova Tapaculo: Based on Maurício et al. (2014), the Boa Nova Tapaculo, Scytalopus gonzagai, has been split from the Mouse-colored Tapaculo, Scytalopus speluncae.

Diamantina Tapaculo: The Diamantina Tapaculo, Scytalopus diamantinensis, was added to the list in 2.05. The composition of Scytalopus is currently very contentious. The SACC discussion of the Diamantina Tapaculo demonstrates how complex the issues are.

Rock Tapaculo: The Rock Tapaculo, Scytalopus petrophilus, was noted by Bornschein et al. (2007) and included in the genetic analysis of Mata et al. (2009). It was formally described by Whitney et al. (2010).

Names in the speluncae complex: The names of these taxa are in dispute, with some (Raposo et al., 2006, 2008) contending that speluncae does not apply to the Mouse-colored Tapaculo, but that it may apply to petrophilus. Raposo et al. (2006) introduced the alternate name notorius for the Mouse-colored Tapaculo. Maurício et al. (2010) argue in favor of the standard treatment, which is followed by the SACC and here.

To clarify a bit, regardless of the scientific names, the Mouse-colored Tapaculo (aka notorius) is the dark gray species (or species group) of more coastal mountains from Rio Grande do Sul to at least Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, including the Serra do Caparaó, Serra do Mar, and Serra da Mantiqueira, while the Rock Tapaculo (aka petrophilus) is the light gray form in the interior range, Serra do Espinhaço.

The issue concerning the name is that the type specimen of speluncae was supposedly collected at São João del Rei, which is Rock Tapaculo territory. However, there are doubts whether this is correct, and others argue that in fact the specimen is a Mouse-colored Tapaculo with the actual collection location unknown. The specimen, collected by Ménétriés, is not in good shape, and access to it has been limited. The issues are whether Ménétriés was in error about the location for this specimen, and whether it is in fact a Mouse-colored Tapaculo. I'm following the SACC here, not because I'm entirely convinced they've made the right decision, but because to do otherwise would only futher complicate the issue.

New Scytalopus Tapaculo Species: All three are described in Krabbe et al. (2020), which also provides a phylogenetic analysis. See also SACC #852, SACC #853, and SACC #854, respectively.

  • White-winged Tapaculo, Scytalopus krabbei
  • Jalca Tapaculo, Scytalopus frankeae
  • Ampay Tapaculo, Scytalopus whitneyi

Paramo Tapaculo: Based on Krabbe and Cadena (2010), Cadena et al. (2020), Krabbe et al. (2020), and SACC #855, the Paramo Tapaculo, Scytalopus opacus, is split into:

  • Paramo Tapaculo, Scytalopus opacus
  • Loja Tapaculo, Scytalopus androstictus

See also SACC #446.

Tatama Tapaculo / Alto Pisones Tapaculo: The “Alto Pisones” Tapaculo was finally described by Stiles et al. (2017). I have added it to the TiF list using their suggested English name: Tatama Tapaculo, Scytalopus alvarezlopezi, but have kept Alto Pisones as an alternate name. It is sister to the Ecuadorian Tapaculo / El Oro Tapaculo, Scytalopus robbinsi.

Perija Tapaculo: The Perija Tapaculo, Scytalopus perijanus, was described in Avendaño et al., (s2015).

Blackish Tapaculo: Based on Cadena et al. (2020) and and SACC #858, the Blackish Tapaculo, Scytalopus latrans, is split into:

  • Blackish Tapaculo, Scytalopus latrans
  • Utcubamba Tapaculo, Scytalopus intermedius

Junin Tapaculo: The newly described Junin Tapaculo, Scytalopus gettyae, has been added (see Hosner et al., 2013). This bird has been known of for a while as the Satipo form of Large-footed Tapaculo and is not to be confused with the so-called Millpo Tapaculo, which occurs higher up. It appears to be part of the latrans group.


Rhinocryptidae: Tapaculos Wetmore, 1926 (1837)

12 genera, 65 species HBW-8

Pteroptochinae P. L. Sclater, 1858 (1852)

  1. White-throated Tapaculo, Scelorchilus albicollis
  2. Chucao Tapaculo, Scelorchilus rubecula
  3. Moustached Turca, Pteroptochos megapodius
  4. Black-throated Huet-huet, Pteroptochos tarnii
  5. Chestnut-throated Huet-huet, Pteroptochos castaneus

Lioscelinae Mauricio et al. 2012

  1. Rusty-belted Tapaculo, Liosceles thoracicus
  2. Spotted Bamboowren, Psilorhamphus guttatus

Rhinocryptinae Wetmore, 1926 (1837)

  1. Ocellated Tapaculo, Acropternis orthonyx
  2. Crested Gallito, Rhinocrypta lanceolata
  3. Sandy Gallito, Teledromas fuscus

Scytalopodinae J. Müller, 1846

Merulaxini Mauricio et al., 2012

  1. White-breasted Tapaculo, Eleoscytalopus indigoticus
  2. Bahia Tapaculo, Eleoscytalopus psychopompus
  3. Slaty Bristlefront, Merulaxis ater
  4. Stresemann's Bristlefront, Merulaxis stresemanni

Scytalopodini J. Müller, 1846

  1. Ash-colored Tapaculo, Myornis senilis
  2. Ochre-flanked Tapaculo, Eugralla paradoxa
  3. Marsh Tapaculo, Scytalopus iraiensis
  4. Mouse-colored Tapaculo, Scytalopus speluncae
  5. Boa Nova Tapaculo, Scytalopus gonzagai
  6. Brasilia Tapaculo, Scytalopus novacapitalis
  7. Diamantina Tapaculo, Scytalopus diamantinensis
  8. Planalto Tapaculo, Scytalopus pachecoi
  9. Rock Tapaculo, Scytalopus petrophilus
  10. Dusky Tapaculo, Scytalopus fuscus
  11. Magellanic Tapaculo, Scytalopus magellanicus
  12. Ancash Tapaculo, Scytalopus affinis
  13. White-winged Tapaculo, Scytalopus krabbei
  14. Paramillo Tapaculo, Scytalopus canus
  15. Paramo Tapaculo, Scytalopus opacus
  16. Loja Tapaculo, Scytalopus androstictus
  17. White-browed Tapaculo, Scytalopus superciliaris
  18. Zimmer's Tapaculo, Scytalopus zimmeri
  19. Puna Tapaculo, Scytalopus simonsi
  20. Neblina Tapaculo, Scytalopus altirostris
  21. Jalca Tapaculo, Scytalopus frankeae
  22. Ampay Tapaculo, Scytalopus whitneyi
  23. Vilcabamba Tapaculo, Scytalopus urubambae
  24. Diademed Tapaculo, Scytalopus schulenbergi
  25. Trilling Tapaculo, Scytalopus parvirostris
  26. Bolivian Tapaculo / Bolivian White-crowned Tapaculo, Scytalopus bolivianus
  27. Santa Marta Tapaculo, Scytalopus sanctaemartae
  28. White-crowned Tapaculo / Northern White-crowned Tapaculo, Scytalopus atratus
  29. Narino Tapaculo, Scytalopus vicinior
  30. Silvery-fronted Tapaculo, Scytalopus argentifrons
  31. Tacarcuna Tapaculo, Scytalopus panamensis
  32. Choco Tapaculo, Scytalopus chocoensis
  33. Magdalena Tapaculo, Scytalopus rodriguezi
  34. Stiles's Tapaculo, Scytalopus stilesi
  35. Tatama Tapaculo / Alto Pisones Tapaculo, Scytalopus alvarezlopezi
  36. Ecuadorian Tapaculo / El Oro Tapaculo, Scytalopus robbinsi
  37. Merida Tapaculo, Scytalopus meridanus
  38. Caracas Tapaculo, Scytalopus caracae
  39. Brown-rumped Tapaculo, Scytalopus latebricola
  40. Perija Tapaculo, Scytalopus perijanus
  41. Pale-bellied Tapaculo, Scytalopus griseicollis
  42. Spillmann's Tapaculo, Scytalopus spillmanni
  43. Chusquea Tapaculo, Scytalopus parkeri
  44. Long-tailed Tapaculo, Scytalopus micropterus
  45. Rufous-vented Tapaculo, Scytalopus femoralis
  46. Blackish Tapaculo, Scytalopus latrans
  47. Tschudi's Tapaculo, Scytalopus acutirostris
  48. Unicolored Tapaculo, Scytalopus unicolor
  49. Utcubamba Tapaculo, Scytalopus intermedius
  50. Large-footed Tapaculo, Scytalopus macropus
  51. Junin Tapaculo, Scytalopus gettyae

Formicariidae: Antthrushes G.R. Gray, 1840 (1825)

Notes — Formicariidae

Click for Formicariidae tree
Click for Formicariidae
species

The Antthrushes or Formicariidae are the last family before the Ovenbirds. We need to ask whether the Antthrushes belong with the Ovenbirds. The answer is no. The split between the Antthrushes and Ovenbirds dates to 32.5 mya, according to Harvey et al. (2020). All of the Ovenbirds share a common ancestor at about 21.3 mya. With such a gap, it would make no sense to combine them.

Antthrush Subfamilies: The structure of the Formicariidae is quite simple. There are two genera, Formicarius and Chamaeza. But these two genera are separated by 23.2 million years! It makes sense to rank them as subfamilies: Formicariinae and Chamaezinae. One thing that distinguishes them are the smooth colors on the underparts of the Formicariinae and the patterns (scallops, bars, etc.) under the Chamaezinae.

Black-faced Antthrush: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius analis is split into:

  • Mayan Antthrush, Formicarius moniliger, including pallidus and intermedius
  • Northern Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius hoffmanni, including umbrosus, panamensis, virescens, and griseoventris
  • Southern Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius analis, including connectens, zamorae, crissalis, and paraensis

Striated Antthrush: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza nobilis is split into:

  • Western Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza nobilis, including rubida
  • Eastern Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza fulvipectus

Short-tailed Antthrush: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, which notes 5 song grous, the Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza campanisona is split into:

  • Brazilian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza campanisona, including tshororo
  • Roraiman Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza fulvescens, including obscura, yavii, and huachamacarii
  • Colombian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza columbiana, including punctigula
  • Venezuelan Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza venezuelana
  • Peruvian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza olivacea, including berlepschi and boliviana

Formicariidae: Antthrushes G.R. Gray, 1840 (1825)

2 genera, 18 species HBW-8

Formicariinae: Smooth Antthrushes G.R. Gray, 1840 (1825)

  1. Rufous-fronted Antthrush, Formicarius rufifrons
  2. Rufous-capped Antthrush, Formicarius colma
  3. Rufous-breasted Antthrush, Formicarius rufipectus
  4. Mayan Antthrush, Formicarius moniliger
  5. Black-headed Antthrush, Formicarius nigricapillus
  6. Northern Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius hoffmanni
  7. Southern Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius analis

Chamaezinae: Patterned Antthrushes Informal

  1. Rufous-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza ruficauda
  2. Such's Antthrush / Cryptic Antthrush, Chamaeza meruloides
  3. Barred Antthrush, Chamaeza mollissima
  4. Schwartz's Antthrush, Chamaeza turdina
  5. Brazilian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza campanisona
  6. Western Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza nobilis
  7. Eastern Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza fulvipectus
  8. Roraiman Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza fulvescens
  9. Colombian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza columbiana
  10. Venezuelan Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza venezuelana
  11. Peruvian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza olivacea

Furnariidae: Ovenbirds G.R. Gray, 1840

69 genera, 317 species HBW-8

Furnariidae At the family level, the taxonomy agrees with SACC, folding the woodcreepers into the Furnariidae as the subfamily Dendrocolaptinae. This was necessary because the woodcreepers are nested within the Furnariidae, as shown on the diagram to the right. If they were separated, the Furnariidae would no longer be monophyletic. The SACC now divides the Furnariidae into three subfamilies: Sclerurinae (leaftossers and miners), Furnariinae (ovenbirds), and Dendrocolaptinae (woodcreepers). I arrange them as Sclerurinae, Dendrocolaptinae, Furnariinae because Furnariinae is much larger than Dendrocolaptinae.

Xenops

However, as you can see on the diagram, I've included one more subfamily: Xenopinae. This group consists of the three Xenops species. The problem here is that is in unclear whether Xenops is closer to the woodcreepers or true ovenbirds. According to some genes Xenops is sister to Dendrocolaptinae, while others put it sister to Furnariinae (see Fjeldså et al., 2005, 2007; Irestedt et al., 2009b; Moyle et al., 2009b; Derryberry et al., 2011). Fjeldså et al. (2005) tell a nice story that makes Xenops somewhat analogous to a piculet. I have some sympathy for this argument as they sometimes remind me of piculets. Moreover, the nuclear RAG-1 and RAG-2 genes that Moyle et al. rely on may change too slowly to resolve all of the find details of the tree. On the other hand, the other genes used by Derryberry et al. did not change the RAG picture. Further, the cytochrome-b tree in Fjeldså et al. (2005) puts Xenops with the Furnariinae. However, Fjeldså et al. (2005, 2007) both use additional genes and end up with Xenops near the woodcreepers. Irestedt et al. (2009b) agree in their overall tree, but the is considerable disagreement among the individual gene trees. Given the conflicting results, I think the best course of action for now is to put Xenops in its own subfamily to indicate the uncertainty, but put it closer to Furnariinae than Dendrocolaptinae pending further information.

The other complication with Xenops is that the Rufous-tailed Xenops does not belong in Xenops (Moyle et al., 2009b; Irestedt et al., 2009b). Fortunately, there is an available genus name: Microxenops (Chapman 1914). Accordingly, the Rufous-tailed Xenops becomes Microxenops milleri and moves to Pygarrhichadini. Megaxenops was also formerly considered part of this group, but Remsen (2003) had already noted that it is not closely related to Xenops.

Leaftossers

The Tawny-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus mexicanus has been split into Tawny-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus mexicanus (mexicanus + pullus) and Pacific Leaftosser, Sclerurus obscurior, Andean Leaftosser, Sclerurus andinus, and Amazonian Leaftosser, Sclerurus macconnelli (peruvianus, macconnelli, and bahiae) based on d'Horta et al. (2013) and Cooper and Cuervo (2017). Our understanding of these taxa continues to evolve. See SACC Proposals 603, 752, and 860. The SACC currently recognizes only one South America species, which they call South America Leaftosser.

Woodcreepers

Click for Dendrocolaptinae species
Click for Dendrocolaptinae
species

We turn to the woodcreepers first. Irestedt et al. (2009b), Derryberry et al. (2011, 2012), and Moyle et al. (2009b) can be read as concurring that there are three clades (A, B, and C on the diagram), plus Glyphorynchus (Wedge-billed Woodcreeper). They agree on the membership and relative position of the three clades (A sister to B plus C). They are all consistent with the same genera, something only accomplished in the last few years. The big disagreement is the position of Glyphorynchus. Irestedt et al. and Derryberry et al. (2012) put it basal to the three clades, while Derryberry et al. (2011), Moyle et al. (2009b), and Ohlsen et al. (2013) have it sister to B plus C. What can one conclude? I gave up and put Glyphorynchus in an unresolved trichotomy with clade A and the combined clades B plus C. Glyphorynchus and A are sometimes characterized as “intermediate”, meaning between the other woodcreepers and the rest of Furnariidae, while B and C are sometimes referred to as “strong-billed” (e.g., HBW-8).

Within clade A, Deconychura has been split into two (Derryberry et al., 2010a). As a result the Spot-throated Woodcreeper is now Certhiasomus stictolaemus. It takes the basal position in clade A. I'm also treated Plain-winged Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla turdina as distinct from Plain-brown Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla fuliginosa (see Weir and Price, 2011; Derryberry et al., 2012). Note that taunayi then becomes a subspecies of Plain-winged Woodcreeper.

The strong-billed woodcreepers divide into a mostly heavy-billed group (B) and a clade contained the curved-billed species, including scythebills (C). In clade B, there's some disagreement about the placement of Dendrocolaptes. Derryberry et al. (2011, 2012) and Irestedt et al. (2009b) sample more taxa, and I follow them. Derryberry et al. (2012) also provide some support for Silva and Oren's (1995) treatment of Hylexetastes as four species. Accordingly, I've split Brigida's Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes brigidai, and Uniform Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes uniformis, from Red-billed Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes perrotii.

In the scythebill clade, the Greater Scythebill, formerly Campylorhamphus pucherani, turns out to be sister to the Scimitar-billed Woodcreeper, Drymornis bridgesii. Claramunt et al. (2010) established the new genus Drymotoxeres for it. Finally, there is some minor disagreement between Arbeláez-Cortés et al. (2012) and Derryberry et al. (2012) concerning the relationships of the basal three Lepidocolaptes. Derryberry et al. have them as closest relatives (as here), while the combined analysis of Arbeláez-Cortés et al. shows them as successive branches, in reversed order (the cytochrome-b agrees with Derryberry et al.).

At the species level, the situation with the Cocoa (Xiphorhynchus susurrans), Buff-throated (X. guttatus), and Lafresnaye's (X. guttatoides) Woodcreepers is now clearer due to Rocha et al. (2015) and Aleixo (2001). I currently recognize 3 species in the complex.

  • Lafresnaye's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus guttatoides, including dorgibnyanus, eytoni, gracilirostris, and vicinalis (south and west of the Amazon/Negro).
  • Cocoa Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus susurrans (Central America, Colombian Andes, northern Venezuela).
  • Buff-throated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus guttatus, including connectens and polystictus (north and east of the Amazon/Negro, Atlantic Forest).

The Cocoa and Buff-throated Woodcreepers are sister species, with the Lafresnaye's complex more distantly related. The Lafresnay'es complex may contain two additional species. However, as Rocha et al. (2015) point out, it would be prudent to sample upriver before accepting further splits. The dark-billed subspecies east of the Xingu (eytoni and gracilirostris) are sister taxa and only distantly related to the other subspecies of Lafresnaye's. They have sometimes been united as Dusky-billed Woodcreeper with the other dark-billed subspecies, vicinalis. However, the sampled vicinalis are quite a bit more closely related to guttatoides than to eytoni or gracilirostris. The subspecies vicinalis actually ranges from the Madeira to the Xingu (not to the Tapajós, as previously thought). It has been thought that some are intergrades between eytoni and guttatoides, but that was not supported by Rocha et al.'s samples.

Based on Derryberry et al. (2012) and Sousa-Neves et al. (2013), Tschudi's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus chunchotambo, (including napensis and brevirostris) has been split from Ocellated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus ocellatus. I follow the arrangement in Sousa-Neves et al., where the Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus pardalotus, is basal to both.

Based on Rodrigues et al. (2013) and SACC Proposal #620, the Lineated Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes albolineatus, has been is split into 5 species. They are:

  • White-lined Woodcreeper / Guianan Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes albolineatus
  • Duida Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes duidae;
  • Inambari Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fatimalimae (new taxon);
  • Rondonia Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus (includes madeirae);
  • Layard's Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes layardi.

True Ovenbirds

Once we get below the subfamily level, we abandon the early 2011 SACC order. The genera within the Furnariinae and Dendrocolaptinae are arranged quite differently than in the SACC list. The list here follows the recent tour-de-force by Derryberry and 8 co-authors (2011), which sampled all but 13 of the Furnariid species (96%). Before Derryberry et al., I had relied on a synthesis of Chesser et al. (2007), Fjeldså et al. (2005, 2007), Gonzalez and Wink (2008), Irestedt et al. (2004a, 2006a, 2009b), Moyle et al. (2009b), and Claramunt et al. (2010), with the overall arrangement is driven by the recent papers by Irestedt et al. (2009b) and Moyle et al. (2009b). I'm happy to say that I'm able to retain the same tribes (with the same members) as before Derryberry et al. The fact that this structure remains even though a number of new genes have been added to the analysis suggests that it is correct. There remain some minor issues concerning the arrangement of these tribes, both externally and internally, but the overall picture seems stable at this point.

As far as overall structure of the ovenbird subfamily is concerned, the main options are Irestedt et al. (2009b) topology found by Moyle et al. (2009b) and Derryberry et al. (2011). Derryberry et al. use six genes, two of which were previously used by Moyle et al. Irestedt et al. use an entirely different set of six genes and obtain a somewhat different topology. There Pygarrhichadini is the basal group, with Philydorini and Margarornini breaking off successively. A clade containing Berlepschiini, Furnariini, and Synallaxini is well-supported. A clade of Furnariini and Synallaxini get mediocre support, as does a division of Furnariini into two parts which are successively sister to Synallaxini. Except for the Pseudocolaptes, Premnornis, Tarphonomus group, there is agreement on the composition of the clades.

Furnariinae At the tribal level I now follow the topology of Moyle et al. (2009b) and Derryberry et al. (2011). It starts with Berlepschia by itself at the base of the ovenbird subfamily. I distinguish this and the major clades within the ovenbirds by giving them tribal rank. You notice the various genera listed on the tree too. That part of the tree, and the species trees below, are all based on Derryberry et al. (2011).

Berlepschiini is followed by another small tribe, Pygarrhichadini. Next comes the Furnariini-Philydorini group. It's followed by the Margarornini, which has been separated from the traditional Philydorinae. Finally, we have the Synallaxini.

There have also been some changes within these groups, sometimes involving reoganized genera. Note that except for splits and lumps, the species composition of each tribe has remained the same since version 2.13 of this page (June 30, 2009). However, some have been moved to different genera.

Furnariini

To improve alignment with the IOC list, I have split the Pacific Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes johnsoni, from the Buffy Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes lawrencii, as advocated by Ridgely and Tudor (2009).

The genus Upucerthia has been divided into 4 four parts (Chesser et al., 2007; Fjeldså et al. 2007). Two species are moved to Ochetorhynchus (in Pygarrhichadini), which also absorbs Chilia and Eremobius; two others form the new genus Tarphonomus (Chesser et al., 2007); U. serrana is placed in the new genus Geocerthia (Chesser et al., 2009); the rest remain in Upucerthia, which shrinks a bit with the lumping of Plain-breasted Earthcreeper, Upucerthia jelskii, into Buff-breasted Earthcreeper, Upucerthia validirostris (Areta and Pearman, 2013). The last three genera remain with the Furnariini.

Another IOC/Ridgely and Tudor (2009) split involves the horneros. Pacific Hornero, Furnarius cinnamomeus, and Caribbean Hornero, Furnarius longirostris, have been split from Pale-legged Hornero, Furnarius leucopus.

The arrangement of Cinclodes species now follows Derryberry et al. (2011), which is similar to that of Sanín et al. (2009). Sanín et al. presented evidence for splitting the Bar-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes fuscus, into three species. Jaramillo (2003) suggested the English names Buff-winged Cinclodes for Cinclodes fuscus and Cream-winged Cinclodes for Cinclodes albiventris. SACC has named Cinclodes albidiventris Chestnut-winged Cinclodes. The Chestnut-winged Cinclodes is the northern group, with a range extending into NW Peru (Cajamarca and Piura). It includes subspecies heterurus and oreobates, in addition to albidiventris. The central species is the Cream-winged Cinclodes, ranging from N Peru (Amazonas) to N Chile (Antofagasta) and NW Argentina (La Rioja). It apparently includes the isolated subspecies riojanus, rufus, and yzurietaeof NW Argentina, as well as tucumanus and albiventris. The southern Buff-winged Cinclodes is then monotypic.

The Cipo Cinclodes, Cinclodes espinhacensis, is treated as a subspecies of the Long-tailed Cinclodes, Cinclodes pabsti. See SACC proposal #548.

Philydorini

There are several changes within Philydorini resulting from Derryberry et al. (2011). This includes the dismemberment of Philydor itself. Only 3 species remain in Philydor. The other 6 are reallocated as follows: The Ochre-breasted and Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaners move to Anabacerthia, Buff-fronted and Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaners move to Ancistrops, and Rufous-rumped and Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaners move to Megaxenops. The last two pairs of these are a bit unfortunate. The differences between the Chestnut-winged Hookbill and the two foliage-gleaners (Buff-fronted and Chestnut-winged) are fairly large, as are differences between the Great Xenops and Rufous-rumped and Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaners. However, I could not find available genus names belonging to any of the Buff-fronted, Chestnut-winged, Rufous-rumped, or Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaners.

Further, the two recurvebills Simoxenops have been moved into Syndactyla. They sit fairly deeply in Syndactyla, and even though they are distinctive, I don't see any other reasonable way to handle this.

The remaining changes to the Philydorini are confined to the Automolus branch. Chestnut-capped (Henna-capped) Foliage-gleaner is transferred from Hylocryptus to Clibanornis. The monotypic Hyloctistes has been merged into Automolus. Two Automolus species, the Ruddy and Santa Marta Foliage-gleaners, are placed in Clibanornis.

The newly discovered (and possibly extinct) Cryptic Treehunter, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti, has been added. See Mazar Barnett and Buzzetti (2014) and Claramunt (2014b).

Another IOC/Ridgely-Tudor (2009) change is to split Striped Woodhaunter, Automolus subulatus, into Western Woodhaunter, Automolus virgatus and Eastern Woodhaunter, Automolus subulatus.

The Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner, Automolus exsertus, has been split from the Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Automolus ochrolaemus. See AOS Supplement #59, which is based on the analysis of their response to calls by Freeman and Montgomery (2017).

Synallaxini

Following H&M-4 (Dickinson and Christidis, 2014), the Tawny Tit-Spinetail, Sylviorthorhynchus yanacensis, has moved to Sylviorthorhynchus from Leptasthenura. These two sister species are deeply divided from Leptasthenura (Derryberry et al., 2011).

The Plain Thornbird, Phacellodomus inornatus has been split from Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Phacellodomus rufifrons, matching IOC and Ridgely and Tudor (2009).

The biggest changes in the Synallaxini involve the genera Asthenes, Oreophylax, and Schizoeaca. Here the usual generic limits do not reflect the gene tree. The recent paper by Derryberry et al. (2010b) has done much to straighten out the situation. Four of the Asthenes, humicola, patagonica, steinbachi, and cactorum, do not really belong to the group. Derryberry et al. (2010b) created the new genus Pseudasthenes for this clade. They are more closely related to Spartonoica and Pseudoseisura (Derryberry et al., 2010b; Fjeldså et al., 2007; Gonzalez and Wink, 2008; Irestedt et al., 2009b). This is a bit surprising as cactorum has been considered a subspecies of modesta, which is actually not a close relative.

The remaining species of the Asthenes, Oreophylax, and Schizoeaca group form a clade. Derryberry et al. (2010b) suggest treating them all as Asthenes, and I now follow that here.

There are 3 or 4 branches of Asthenes. The basal branch includes dorbignyi, baeri, and probably berlepschi. All of these have previously been considered part of a superspecies. Another supposed member of that group, luizae, appears to form a separate branch that is closer to the other Asthenes than to the dorbignyi superspecies. The dorbignyi group seems to include at least two undescribed taxa. One is the “Ancash” Canastero.

As recommended by IOC and Ridgely and Tudor (2009), Creamy-breasted Canastero, Asthenes dorbignyi has been split into Pale-tailed Canastero, Asthenes huancavelicae, Rusty-vented Canastero, Asthenes dorbignyi, and Dark-winged Canastero, Asthenes arequipae.

Ancash Canastero Ancash Canastero Ancash Canastero
“Ancash” Canastero

The remaining species of Asthenes are in two clades. The first runs from hudsoni to modesta. The other, which is comprised of the remaining Asthenes, includes the species formerly placed in Oreophylax and Schizoeaca. Some of the relationships here are rather surprising as all of the old Schizoeaca are sometimes considered conspecific, and because of the geographic separation between the Andean Schizoeaca and Oreophylax of SE Brazil.

There is a split in the former Schizoeaca based on Hosner et al. (2015b) and SACC #697. The Ayacucho Thistletail, Asthenes ayacuchensis, has been split from Vilcabamba Thistletail, Asthenes vilcabambae. These are not each other's closest relatives and the split has caused some minor rearrangement of Asthenes.

The Synallaxini have undergone further changes due to Derryberry et al. (2011). There's some reallocation in the Cranioleuca branch. Cranioleuca loses two species, Sulphur-throated Spinetail moves to Limnoctites and Speckled Spinetail moves to Thripophaga. Conversely, Thripophaga loses Russet-mantled Softtail to Cranioleuca. It also gains the newly discovered Delta Amacuro Softtail, Thripophaga amacurensis (Hilty et al., 2013). Cranioleuca also loses a species due to the lumping of Baron's Spinetail, Cranioleuca baroni, into Line-cheeked Spinetail, Cranioleuca antisiensis. See Seeholzer and Brumfield (2018) and SACC Proposal 762 for details.

I had previously separated several species of Synallaxis as Poecilurus in an attempt to avoid paraphyly. The more complete analysis of Derryberry et al. showed that this was a failure. According, I have returned the Poecilurus species to Synallaxis. Moreover, I've also merged the monotypic Gyalophylax and Siptornopsis into Synallaxis. Although Synallaxis is a large genus, the differences between the Synallaxis spinetails are small enough that I see no reason to subdivide it.

The Bahia Spinetail, Synallaxis whitneyi, has been merged into the Rufous-capped Spinetail, Synallaxis ruficapilla as the characteristics of whitneyi are all within the variation in ruficapilla (Stopiglia et al., 2013).

Finally, the White-bellied Spinetail has been placed in the new genus Mazaria (Claramunt, 2014a) as Mazaria propinqua. SACC still lists it in Synallaxis, but genetic data (Derryberry et al., 2011) showed it was sister to Schoeniophylax and I moved it there. As Claramunt (2014a) notes, the two species are so different that putting the White-bellied Spinetail in Schoeniophylax makes the genus undiagnosible. He established the new genus Mazaria to solve this problem.

Sclerurinae: Leaftossers and Miners Swainson, 1827

  • Short-billed Leaftosser, Sclerurus rufigularis
    Click for Sclerurinae species
    Click for Sclerurinae
    species
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus mexicanus
  • Dusky Leaftosser, Sclerurus obscurior
  • Andean Leaftosser, Sclerurus andinus
  • Amazonian Leaftosser, Sclerurus macconnelli
  • Scaly-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus guatemalensis
  • Black-tailed Leaftosser, Sclerurus caudacutus
  • Gray-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus albigularis
  • Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, Sclerurus scansor
  • Coastal Miner, Geositta peruviana
  • Slender-billed Miner, Geositta tenuirostris
  • Common Miner, Geositta cunicularia
  • Puna Miner, Geositta punensis
  • Campo Miner, Geositta poeciloptera
  • Thick-billed Miner, Geositta crassirostris
  • Rufous-banded Miner, Geositta rufipennis
  • Grayish Miner, Geositta maritima
  • Short-billed Miner, Geositta antarctica
  • Dark-winged Miner, Geositta saxicolina
  • Creamy-rumped Miner, Geositta isabellina

Dendrocolaptinae: Woodcreepers G.R. Gray, 1840

  • Wedge-billed Woodcreeper, Glyphorynchus spirurus
    Click for Dendrocolaptinae species
    Click for Dendrocolaptinae
    species
  • Spot-throated Woodcreeper, Certhiasomus stictolaemus
  • Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Sittasomus griseicapillus
  • Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Deconychura longicauda
  • Tyrannine Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla tyrannina
  • White-chinned Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla merula
  • Ruddy Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla homochroa
  • Tawny-winged Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla anabatina
  • Plain-winged Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla turdina
  • Plain-brown Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla fuliginosa
  • Long-billed Woodcreeper, Nasica longirostris
  • Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper, Dendrexetastes rufigula
  • Northern Barred-Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae
  • Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes certhia
  • Planalto Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes platyrostris
  • Black-banded Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes picumnus
  • Hoffmanns's Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes hoffmannsi
  • Brigida's Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes brigidai
  • Uniform Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes uniformis
  • Bar-bellied Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes stresemanni
  • Red-billed Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes perrotii
  • White-throated Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes albicollis
  • Moustached Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes falcirostris
  • Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus
  • Great Rufous Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes major
  • Lesser Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus fuscus
  • Elegant Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus elegans
  • Spix's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus spixii
  • Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus pardalotus
  • Tschudi's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus chunchotambo
  • Ocellated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus ocellatus
  • Spotted Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus erythropygius
  • Olive-backed Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus triangularis
  • Striped Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus obsoletus
  • Ivory-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus flavigaster
  • Black-striped Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus
  • Lafresnaye's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus guttatoides
  • Cocoa Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus susurrans
  • Buff-throated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus guttatus
  • Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner, Automolus exsertus
  • Straight-billed Woodcreeper, Dendroplex picus
  • Zimmer's Woodcreeper, Dendroplex kienerii
  • Black-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus falcularius
  • Brown-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus pusillus
  • Red-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus trochilirostris
  • Curve-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus procurvoides
  • Greater Scythebill, Drymotoxeres pucheranii
  • Scimitar-billed Woodcreeper, Drymornis bridgesii
  • Scaled Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes squamatus
  • Scalloped Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes falcinellus
  • Montane Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger
  • White-striped Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes leucogaster
  • Spot-crowned Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes affinis
  • Streak-headed Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes souleyetii
  • Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes angustirostris
  • White-lined Woodcreeper / Guianan Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes albolineatus
  • Duida Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes duidae
  • Inambari Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fatimalimae
  • Rondonia Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus
  • Layard's Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes layardi

Xenopinae: Xenops Bonaparte, 1854

  • Plain Xenops, Xenops minutus
  • Streaked Xenops, Xenops rutilans
  • Slender-billed Xenops, Xenops tenuirostris

Furnariinae: True Ovenbirds G.R. Gray, 1840

Berlepschiini: Palmcreeper Ohlson et al., 2013a

  • Point-tailed Palmcreeper, Berlepschia rikeri

Pygarrhichadini Wolters, 1977

  • Rufous-tailed Xenops, Microxenops milleri
  • White-throated Treerunner, Pygarrhichas albogularis
  • Rock Earthcreeper, Ochetorhynchus andaecola
  • Crag Chilia, Ochetorhynchus melanurus
  • Straight-billed Earthcreeper, Ochetorhynchus ruficaudus
  • Band-tailed Earthcreeper, Ochetorhynchus phoenicurus

Furnariini G.R. Gray, 1840

  • Buffy Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes lawrencii
    Click for Xenopinae thru Furnariini
    Click for Xenopinae thru
    Furnariini species
  • Streaked Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii
  • Pacific Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes johnsoni
  • Rusty-winged Barbtail, Premnornis guttuliger
  • Bolivian Earthcreeper, Tarphonomus harterti
  • Chaco Earthcreeper, Tarphonomus certhioides
  • Lesser Hornero, Furnarius minor
  • Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus
  • Crested Hornero, Furnarius cristatus
  • Pale-billed Hornero / Bay Hornero, Furnarius torridus
  • Wing-banded Hornero / Band-tailed Hornero, Furnarius figulus
  • Caribbean Hornero, Furnarius longirostris
  • Pacific Hornero, Furnarius cinnamomeus
  • Pale-legged Hornero, Furnarius leucopus
  • Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Lochmias nematura
  • Wren-like Rushbird, Phleocryptes melanops
  • Curve-billed Reedhaunter, Limnornis curvirostris
  • Striated Earthcreeper, Geocerthia serrana
  • Buff-breasted Earthcreeper, Upucerthia validirostris
  • Patagonian Forest Earthcreeper, Upucerthia saturatior
  • White-throated Earthcreeper, Upucerthia albigula
  • Scale-throated Earthcreeper / Scaly-throated Earthcreeper, Upucerthia dumetaria
  • Long-tailed Cinclodes, Cinclodes pabsti
  • Buff-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes fuscus
  • Blackish Cinclodes, Cinclodes antarcticus
  • Cordoba Cinclodes, Cinclodes comechingonus
  • Chestnut-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes albidiventris
  • Olrog's Cinclodes, Cinclodes olrogi
  • Cream-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes albiventris
  • Gray-flanked Cinclodes, Cinclodes oustaleti
  • Stout-billed Cinclodes, Cinclodes excelsior
  • Royal Cinclodes, Cinclodes aricomae
  • White-bellied Cinclodes, Cinclodes palliatus
  • White-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes atacamensis
  • Dark-bellied Cinclodes, Cinclodes patagonicus
  • Surf Cinclodes / Peruvian Seaside Cinclodes, Cinclodes taczanowskii
  • Seaside Cinclodes / Chilean Seaside Cinclodes, Cinclodes nigrofumosus

Philydorini: Foliage-gleaners, Treehunters Sclater & Salvin, 1873

  • Dusky-cheeked Foliage-gleaner / Bamboo Foliage-gleaner, Anabazenops dorsalis
    Click for Philydorini and Margarornini species
    Click for Philydorini
    and Margarornini species
  • White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Anabazenops fuscus
  • Great Xenops, Megaxenops parnaguae
  • Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaner, Megaxenops fuscipennis
  • Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner, Megaxenops erythrocercus
  • Cryptic Treehunter, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti
  • Pale-browed Treehunter, Cichlocolaptes leucophrus
  • Sharp-billed Treehunter, Heliobletus contaminatus
  • Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-gleaner, Philydor pyrrhodes
  • Alagoas Foliage-gleaner, Philydor novaesi
  • Black-capped Foliage-gleaner, Philydor atricapillus
  • Montane Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia striaticollis
  • Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia variegaticeps
  • Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia ruficaudata
  • White-browed Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia amaurotis
  • Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia lichtensteini
  • Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla rufosuperciliata
  • Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner / Planalto Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla dimidiata
  • White-throated Foliage-gleaner / Tepui Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla roraimae
  • Lineated Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla subalaris
  • Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla ruficollis
  • Guttulate Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla guttulata
  • Peruvian Recurvebill, Syndactyla ucayalae
  • Bolivian Recurvebill, Syndactyla striata
  • Chestnut-winged Hookbill, Ancistrops strigilatus
  • Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner, Ancistrops rufus
  • Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner, Ancistrops erythropterus
  • Chestnut-capped Foliage-gleaner / Henna-capped Foliage-gleaner, Clibanornis rectirostris
  • Canebrake Groundcreeper, Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides
  • Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner, Clibanornis rufipectus
  • Ruddy Foliage-gleaner, Clibanornis rubiginosus
  • Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner, Clibanornis erythrocephalus
  • Uniform Treehunter, Thripadectes ignobilis
  • Flammulated Treehunter, Thripadectes flammulatus
  • Rufous-backed Treehunter / Peruvian Treehunter, Thripadectes scrutator
  • Striped Treehunter, Thripadectes holostictus
  • Streak-capped Treehunter, Thripadectes virgaticeps
  • Streak-breasted Treehunter, Thripadectes rufobrunneus
  • Black-billed Treehunter, Thripadectes melanorhynchus
  • Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner, Automolus rufipileatus
  • Brown-rumped Foliage-gleaner, Automolus melanopezus
  • Western Woodhaunter, Automolus virgatus
  • Eastern Woodhaunter, Automolus subulatus
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Automolus ochrolaemus
  • Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner, Automolus exsertus
  • Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner, Automolus infuscatus
  • Para Foliage-gleaner, Automolus paraensis
  • White-eyed Foliage-gleaner, Automolus leucophthalmus
  • Pernambuco Foliage-gleaner, Automolus lammi

Margarornini: Barbtails and Treerunners Ridgway, 1911

  • Spotted Barbtail, Premnoplex brunnescens
  • White-throated Barbtail, Premnoplex tatei
  • Ruddy Treerunner, Margarornis rubiginosus
  • Pearled Treerunner, Margarornis squamiger
  • Beautiful Treerunner, Margarornis bellulus
  • Fulvous-dotted Treerunner / Star-chested Treerunner, Margarornis stellatus

Synallaxini: Spinetails de Selys-Longchamps, 1839 (1836)

  • Masafuera Rayadito, Aphrastura masafuerae
    Click for Synallaxini species (4 pages)
    Click for Synallaxini
    species (4 pages)
  • Thorn-tailed Rayadito, Aphrastura spinicauda
  • Des Murs's Wiretail, Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii
  • Tawny Tit-Spinetail, Sylviorthorhynchus yanacensis
  • White-browed Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura xenothorax
  • Araucaria Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura setaria
  • Tufted Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura platensis
  • Striolated Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura striolata
  • Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura pileata
  • Streaked Tit-Spinetail / Streak-backed Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura striata
  • Brown-capped Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura fuliginiceps
  • Andean Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura andicola
  • Plain-mantled Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura aegithaloides
  • Plain Thornbird, Phacellodomus inornatus
  • Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Phacellodomus rufifrons
  • Streak-fronted Thornbird, Phacellodomus striaticeps
  • Little Thornbird, Phacellodomus sibilatrix
  • Chestnut-backed Thornbird, Phacellodomus dorsalis
  • Spot-breasted Thornbird, Phacellodomus maculipectus
  • Greater Thornbird, Phacellodomus ruber
  • Freckle-breasted Thornbird, Phacellodomus striaticollis
  • Orange-eyed Thornbird, Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus
  • Orange-breasted Thornbird, Phacellodomus ferrugineigula
  • White-browed Spinetail, Hellmayrea gularis
  • Lark-like Brushrunner, Coryphistera alaudina
  • Firewood-gatherer, Anumbius annumbi
  • Short-billed Canastero, Asthenes baeri
  • Berlepsch's Canastero, Asthenes berlepschi
  • Pale-tailed Canastero, Asthenes huancavelicae
  • Rusty-vented Canastero, Asthenes dorbignyi
  • Dark-winged Canastero, Asthenes arequipae
  • Cipo Canastero, Asthenes luizae
  • Hudson's Canastero, Asthenes hudsoni
  • Austral Canastero, Asthenes anthoides
  • Line-fronted Canastero, Asthenes urubambensis
  • Many-striped Canastero, Asthenes flammulata
  • Junin Canastero, Asthenes virgata
  • Scribble-tailed Canastero, Asthenes maculicauda
  • Streak-backed Canastero, Asthenes wyatti
  • Puna Canastero, Asthenes sclateri
  • Streak-throated Canastero, Asthenes humilis
  • Cordilleran Canastero, Asthenes modesta
  • Itatiaia Spinetail, Asthenes moreirae
  • Black-throated Thistletail, Asthenes harterti
  • Sharp-billed Canastero, Asthenes pyrrholeuca
  • Ochre-browed Thistletail, Asthenes coryi
  • Perija Thistletail, Asthenes perijana
  • White-chinned Thistletail, Asthenes fuliginosa
  • Mouse-colored Thistletail, Asthenes griseomurina
  • Puna Thistletail, Asthenes helleri
  • Canyon Canastero, Asthenes pudibunda
  • Vilcabamba Thistletail, Asthenes vilcabambae
  • Maquis Canastero, Asthenes heterura
  • Rusty-fronted Canastero, Asthenes ottonis
  • Eye-ringed Thistletail, Asthenes palpebralis
  • Ayacucho Thistletail, Asthenes ayacuchensis
  • Pink-legged Graveteiro, Acrobatornis fonsecai
  • Orange-fronted Plushcrown, Metopothrix aurantiaca
  • Double-banded Graytail, Xenerpestes minlosi
  • Equatorial Graytail, Xenerpestes singularis
  • Spectacled Prickletail, Siptornis striaticollis
  • Roraiman Barbtail, Roraimia adusta
  • Speckled Spinetail, Thripophaga gutturata
  • Plain Softtail, Thripophaga fusciceps
  • Orinoco Softtail, Thripophaga cherriei
  • Delta Amacuro Softtail, Thripophaga amacurensis
  • Striated Softtail, Thripophaga macroura
  • Straight-billed Reedhaunter, Limnoctites rectirostris
  • Sulphur-throated Spinetail / Sulphur-bearded Spinetail, Limnoctites sulphuriferus
  • Marcapata Spinetail, Cranioleuca marcapatae
  • Light-crowned Spinetail, Cranioleuca albiceps
  • Parker's Spinetail, Cranioleuca vulpecula
  • Russet-mantled Softtail, Cranioleuca berlepschi
  • Rusty-backed Spinetail, Cranioleuca vulpina
  • Scaled Spinetail, Cranioleuca muelleri
  • Creamy-crested Spinetail, Cranioleuca albicapilla
  • Olive Spinetail, Cranioleuca obsoleta
  • Pallid Spinetail, Cranioleuca pallida
  • Stripe-crowned Spinetail, Cranioleuca pyrrhophia
  • Bolivian Spinetail, Cranioleuca henricae
  • Red-faced Spinetail, Cranioleuca erythrops
  • Ash-browed Spinetail, Cranioleuca curtata
  • Line-cheeked Spinetail, Cranioleuca antisiensis
  • Coiba Spinetail, Cranioleuca dissita
  • Tepui Spinetail, Cranioleuca demissa
  • Gray-headed Spinetail, Cranioleuca semicinerea
  • Streak-capped Spinetail, Cranioleuca hellmayri
  • Crested Spinetail, Cranioleuca subcristata
  • Dusky-tailed Canastero, Pseudasthenes humicola
  • Patagonian Canastero, Pseudasthenes patagonica
  • Steinbach's Canastero, Pseudasthenes steinbachi
  • Cactus Canastero, Pseudasthenes cactorum
  • Bay-capped Wren-Spinetail, Spartonoica maluroides
  • Rufous Cacholote / Gray-crested Cacholote, Pseudoseisura unirufa
  • Caatinga Cacholote, Pseudoseisura cristata
  • Brown Cacholote, Pseudoseisura lophotes
  • White-throated Cacholote, Pseudoseisura gutturalis
  • White-bellied Spinetail, Mazaria propinqua
  • Chotoy Spinetail, Schoeniophylax phryganophilus
  • Yellow-chinned Spinetail, Certhiaxis cinnamomeus
  • Red-and-white Spinetail, Certhiaxis mustelinus
  • Ochre-cheeked Spinetail, Synallaxis scutata
  • Gray-bellied Spinetail, Synallaxis cinerascens
  • Plain-crowned Spinetail, Synallaxis gujanensis
  • Maranon Spinetail, Synallaxis maranonica
  • White-lored Spinetail, Synallaxis albilora
  • Hoary-throated Spinetail, Synallaxis kollari
  • Rufous-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis erythrothorax
  • White-whiskered Spinetail, Synallaxis candei
  • Blackish-headed Spinetail, Synallaxis tithys
  • Rusty-headed Spinetail, Synallaxis fuscorufa
  • Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis unirufa
  • Black-throated Spinetail, Synallaxis castanea
  • Stripe-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis cinnamomea
  • Ruddy Spinetail, Synallaxis rutilans
  • Chestnut-throated Spinetail, Synallaxis cherriei
  • Great Spinetail, Synallaxis hypochondriaca
  • Necklaced Spinetail, Synallaxis stictothorax
  • Russet-bellied Spinetail, Synallaxis zimmeri
  • Slaty Spinetail, Synallaxis brachyura
  • Silvery-throated Spinetail, Synallaxis subpudica
  • Red-shouldered Spinetail, Synallaxis hellmayri
  • Dusky Spinetail, Synallaxis moesta
  • McConnell's Spinetail, Synallaxis macconnelli
  • Cabanis's Spinetail, Synallaxis cabanisi
  • Rufous-capped Spinetail, Synallaxis ruficapilla
  • Pinto's Spinetail, Synallaxis infuscata
  • Cinereous-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis hypospodia
  • Spix's Spinetail, Synallaxis spixi
  • Dark-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis albigularis
  • Rio Orinoco Spinetail, Synallaxis beverlyae
  • Pale-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis albescens
  • Sooty-fronted Spinetail, Synallaxis frontalis
  • Azara's Spinetail, Synallaxis azarae
  • Apurimac Spinetail, Synallaxis courseni

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