Furnariida

Passeriformes

Tyranni: Suboscines

Passeri: Oscines

Passerida

Sylvioidea
Muscicapoidea and allies
Passeroidea

The 46 Orders

Paleognathae

Galloanserae

Columbimorphae

Otidimorphae

Strisores

Opisthocomiformes

Gruiformes

Mirandornithes

Ardeae

Charadriiformes

Telluraves

Afroaves

Australaves

Myrmotheridae: Antpittas MacGillivray, 1839

The family name for the Antpittas has been changed from Grallariidae to Myrmotheridae because the latter has priority. See Gaudin et al. (2021a).

Notes — Myrmotheridae

Click for Myrmotheridae tree
Click for Myrmotheridae
species

Antpitta Subfamilies: I've used three subfamilies to organize the antpittas: Myrmotherinae, Grallariinae, and Hypsibemonidae. Each corresponds to a split that occurred over 20 million years ago. I have not added tribes, which could be reasonably assigned to coincide with the genera.

Genus changes: I have made several changes to the genera in order to make sure that the deepest divisions are reflected in the generic structure as much as possible. More precisely, each side of any division deeper than 16 mya gets at least one genus. In fact, there is only one genus that spans a division deeper than 13 mya (Hylopezus).

To accomplish this, we have transferred three Hylopezus antpittas to Myrmothera, many of the Grallaria are now in Hypsibemon (Cabanis 1847, type ruficapilla), and the first four Hypsibemon have been moved to Oropezus.

Speckle-breasted Antpitta: Based on Carneiro, Bravo and Aleixo (2019), the Speckle-breasted Antpitta, Hylopezus nattereri, has been transferred to the genus Cryptopezus. It is the basal branch in Myrmotherinae. It's common ancestor with the rest of Myrmotherinae lived roughly 19.5 mya according to Harvey et al. (2020).

Rusty-breasted Antpitta: Based on Van Doren et al. (2018) and SACC #784 and SACC #801, the Rusty-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula ferrugineipectus, is split into:

Thrush-like Antpitta: Based on Carneiro et al. (2018) and SACC #785, the Thrush-like Antpitta, Myrmothera campanisona, has been split into:

Spotted Antpitta: It has been suspected that the Spotted Antpitta is more than one species (Ridgely and Tudor, 1994; Hilty, 2003; Krabbe and Schulenberg, 2003). Carneiro et al. (2012) made a close study of this. Based on their results, the Spotted Antpitta, Hylopezus macularius, has been split into three species:

The subspecies names differ a bit from HBW-8 (Krabbe and Schulenberg, 2003), but match the HBW Checklist.

Carneiro et al. (2012) suggested one more split, Zimmer's Antpitta, Hylopezus dilutus. They resurrected the name dilutus, previously considered a junior synonym of paraensis. They also submerged diversus into dilutus. However, it remains unsupported by sufficient genetic or vocal evidence, and we will pass on that one pending additional information. See also see SACC #622, which also describes the ranges of the three species.

Variegated Antpitta: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Variegated Antpitta, Grallaria varia, has been split into:

Rufous Antpitta complex: The Rufous Antpitta project has finally paid off. Based on SACC #883, Chesser et al. (2020a) and Isler et al. (2020) the Rufous Antpitta complex (Rufous, Bicolored, Chestnut) is split as follows: Chestnut Antpitta, Oropezus blakei, is split into:

Rufous Antpitta, Oropezus rufulus, is split into 12 species:

This involved the naming of several new taxa: alvarezi (Cuervo, Cadena, Isler, & Chesser), gravesi (Isler, Chesser, Robbins & Hosne), oneilli (Chesser & Isler), centralis and ayacuchensis (Hosner, Robbins, Isler, & Chesser), marcapatensis (Isler & Chesser), and sinaensis (Robbins, Isler, Chesser, & Tobias).

Urrao Antpitta: The Urrao Antpitta, Grallaria urraoensis, has been named twice. The first formal description was by Barrera and Bartels (2010) using the name Grallaria fenwickorum. The SACC considers this description inadequate, (SACC #479B). They rely on the description by the original discoverers in Carantón and Certuche (2010), who use the name Grallaria urraoensis. There are allegations and controversy surrounding the unfortunate circumstances that led to the two different names. I won't further comment on that. Normally, the name Grallaria fenwickorum would have priority, being published first. However, since the SACC considers the proposed type speciment to be inadequate to identify the bird, they use the second published name, urraoensis. I follow the SACC decision in this matter.

Myrmotheridae: Antpittas MacGillivray, 1839

7 genera, 69 species Not HBW Family

Myrmotherinae MacGillivray, 1839

  1. Speckle-breasted Antpitta, Cryptopezus nattereri
  2. Sucre Antpitta, Grallaricula cumanensis
  3. Slate-crowned Antpitta / Slaty-crowned Antpitta, Grallaricula nana
  4. Rusty-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula ferrugineipectus
  5. Crescent-faced Antpitta, Grallaricula lineifrons
  6. Rufous-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula leymebambae
  7. Ochre-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula flavirostris
  8. Peruvian Antpitta, Grallaricula peruviana
  9. Hooded Antpitta, Grallaricula cucullata
  10. Scallop-breasted Antpitta, Grallaricula loricata
  11. Ochre-fronted Antpitta, Grallaricula ochraceifrons
  12. White-lored Antpitta, Myrmothera fulviventris
  13. Amazonian Antpitta, Myrmothera berlepschi
  14. Thicket Antpitta, Myrmothera dives
  15. Thrush-like Antpitta, Myrmothera campanisona
  16. Tepui Antpitta, Myrmothera simplex
  17. Tapajos Antpitta, Myrmothera subcanescens
  18. Masked Antpitta, Hylopezus auricularis
  19. White-browed Antpitta, Hylopezus ochroleucus
  20. Streak-chested Antpitta, Hylopezus perspicillatus
  21. Spotted Antpitta, Hylopezus macularius
  22. Alta Floresta Antpitta, Hylopezus whittakeri
  23. Snethlage's Antpitta, Hylopezus paraensis

Grallariinae P.L. Sclater, 1890

  1. Undulated Antpitta, Grallaria squamigera
  2. Great Antpitta, Grallaria excelsa
  3. Giant Antpitta, Grallaria gigantea
  4. Gray-naped Antpitta, Grallaria griseonucha
  5. Plain-backed Antpitta, Grallaria haplonota
  6. Moustached Antpitta, Grallaria alleni
  7. Scaled Antpitta, Grallaria guatimalensis
  8. Tachira Antpitta, Grallaria chthonia
  9. Northern Variegated Antpitta, Grallaria varia
  10. Southern Variegated Antpitta, Grallaria imperator

Hypsibemonidae Sundevall, 1872

  1. Stripe-headed Antpitta, Oropezus andicolus
  2. Sierra Nevada Antpitta, Oropezus spatiator
  3. Perija Antpitta, Oropezus saltuensis
  4. Bicolored Antpitta, Oropezus rufocinereus
  5. Muisca Antpitta, Oropezus rufulus
  6. Oxapampa Antpitta, Oropezus centralis
  7. Ayacucho Antpitta, Oropezus ayacuchensis
  8. Urubamba Antpitta, Oropezus occabambae
  9. Puno Antpitta, Oropezus sinaensis
  10. Bolivian Antpitta, Oropezus cochabambae
  11. Cajamarca Antpitta, Oropezus cajamarcae
  12. Chami Antpitta, Oropezus alvarezi
  13. Equatorial Antpitta, Oropezus saturatus
  14. Chestnut Antpitta, Oropezus blakei
  15. Graves's Antpitta, Oropezus gravesi
  16. O'Neill's Antpitta, Oropezus oneilli
  17. Junin Antpitta, Oropezus obscurus
  18. Elusive Antpitta, Hypsibemon eludens
  19. Ochre-striped Antpitta, Hypsibemon dignissimus
  20. Jocotoco Antpitta, Hypsibemon ridgelyi
  21. Chestnut-naped Antpitta, Hypsibemon nuchalis
  22. Pale-billed Antpitta, Hypsibemon carrikeri
  23. White-throated Antpitta, Hypsibemon albigula
  24. Chestnut-crowned Antpitta, Hypsibemon ruficapilla
  25. Watkins's Antpitta, Hypsibemon watkinsi
  26. Yellow-breasted Antpitta, Hypsibemon flavotinctus
  27. Santa Marta Antpitta, Hypsibemon bangsi
  28. Cundinamarca Antpitta, Hypsibemon kaestneri
  29. Urrao Antpitta, Hypsibemon urraoensis
  30. Brown-banded Antpitta, Hypsibemon milleri
  31. Tawny Antpitta, Hypsibemon quitensis
  32. White-bellied Antpitta, Hypsibemon hypoleucus
  33. Red-and-white Antpitta, Hypsibemon erythroleucus
  34. Rufous-faced Antpitta, Hypsibemon erythrotis
  35. Rusty-tinged Antpitta, Hypsibemon przewalskii
  36. Bay Antpitta, Hypsibemon capitalis

Rhinocryptidae: Tapaculos Wetmore, 1926 (1837)

Notes — Rhinocryptidae

Click for Rhinocryptidae tree
Click for Rhinocryptidae
species

Tapaculo Subfamilies: The overall structure of the Rhinocryptidae comes from Harvey et al. (2020). There are several deep division within Rhinocryptidae. The subfamilies Pteroptochinae, Lioscelinae, Rhinocryptinae, and Scytalopodinae represent the deepest divisions in the tapaculo family. According to Harvey et al., these occurred between 20 and 24 million years ago.

I also divided the relatively speciose subfamily Scytalopodinae into two tribes, Merulaxini and Scytalopodini, each with an age of about 17.4 million years. I did not divide the smaller subfamiles into tribes. There's no deep division within Pteroptochinae. Tribes coincide with genera in the other two subfamilies.

When considering species, the Harvey et al. (2020) phylogeny has been augmented by Cadena et al. (2020), Krabbe et al. (2020), and Stiles et al. (2017) to include all of the currently recognized Scytalopus.

The relatively narrow age range for the subfamilies has made it a little difficult to place them correctly. The same groups appeared in Maurício et al. (2008), Moyle et al. (2009), and Ericson et al. (2010), but in somewhat different order. The paper by Ericson et al. was important as it put together all of the genera that comprise the Rhinocryptidae, excluding all pretenders such as the crescent-chests.

An alternative is the morphological phylogeny used by Maurício et al. (2012) which does not match the Harvey et al. phylogeny used here (nor that of Moyle et al., 2009; nor Ericson et al., 2010). I consider that an artifact of their morphological analysis, and find it unsurprising. One big problem with using morphology is that the characters used in the analysis are subject to a lot of convergence for functional reasons even if they are genetically different.

Eleoscytalopus: In version 2.04, the White-breasted and Bahia Tapaculos were moved out of Scytalopus into a new genus, Eleoscytalopus (see Maurício et al., 2008).

Scytalopus: The removal of Eleoscytalopus makes Scytalopus a recent radiation. The common ancestor of the Scytalopus tapaculos lived a mean 6.5 mya. In that 6.5 million years, the ancestral Scytalopus has turned into at least 49 species, and there are more to be added once the fieldwork is done. This genus is one of the great speciators!

Boa Nova Tapaculo: Based on Maurício et al. (2014), the Boa Nova Tapaculo, Scytalopus gonzagai, has been split from the Mouse-colored Tapaculo, Scytalopus speluncae.

Diamantina Tapaculo: The Diamantina Tapaculo, Scytalopus diamantinensis, was added to the list in 2.05. The composition of Scytalopus is currently very contentious. The SACC discussion of the Diamantina Tapaculo demonstrates how complex the issues are.

Rock Tapaculo: The Rock Tapaculo, Scytalopus petrophilus, was noted by Bornschein et al. (2007) and included in the genetic analysis of Mata et al. (2009). It was formally described by Whitney et al. (2010).

Names in the speluncae complex: The names of these taxa are in dispute, with some (Raposo et al., 2006, 2008) contending that speluncae does not apply to the Mouse-colored Tapaculo, but that it may apply to petrophilus. Raposo et al. (2006) introduced the alternate name notorius for the Mouse-colored Tapaculo. Maurício et al. (2010) argue in favor of the standard treatment, which is followed by the SACC and here.

To clarify a bit, regardless of the scientific names, the Mouse-colored Tapaculo (aka notorius) is the dark gray species (or species group) of more coastal mountains from Rio Grande do Sul to at least Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, including the Serra do Caparaó, Serra do Mar, and Serra da Mantiqueira, while the Rock Tapaculo (aka petrophilus) is the light gray form in the interior range, Serra do Espinhaço.

The issue concerning the name is that the type specimen of speluncae was supposedly collected at São João del Rei, which is Rock Tapaculo territory. However, there are doubts whether this is correct, and others argue that in fact the specimen is a Mouse-colored Tapaculo with the actual collection location unknown. The specimen, collected by Ménétriés, is not in good shape, and access to it has been limited. The issues are whether Ménétriés was in error about the location for this specimen, and whether it is in fact a Mouse-colored Tapaculo. I'm following the SACC here, not because I'm entirely convinced they've made the right decision, but because to do otherwise would only futher complicate the issue.

New Scytalopus Tapaculo Species: All three are described in Krabbe et al. (2020), which also provides a phylogenetic analysis. See also SACC #852, SACC #853, and SACC #854, respectively.

  • White-winged Tapaculo, Scytalopus krabbei
  • Jalca Tapaculo, Scytalopus frankeae
  • Ampay Tapaculo, Scytalopus whitneyi

Paramo Tapaculo: Based on Krabbe and Cadena (2010), Cadena et al. (2020), Krabbe et al. (2020), and SACC #855, the Paramo Tapaculo, Scytalopus opacus, is split into:

  • Paramo Tapaculo, Scytalopus opacus
  • Loja Tapaculo, Scytalopus androstictus

See also SACC #446.

Tatama Tapaculo / Alto Pisones Tapaculo: The “Alto Pisones” Tapaculo was finally described by Stiles et al. (2017). I have added it to the TiF list using their suggested English name: Tatama Tapaculo, Scytalopus alvarezlopezi, but have kept Alto Pisones as an alternate name. It is sister to the Ecuadorian Tapaculo / El Oro Tapaculo, Scytalopus robbinsi.

Perija Tapaculo: The Perija Tapaculo, Scytalopus perijanus, was described in Avendaño et al., (s2015).

Blackish Tapaculo: Based on Cadena et al. (2020) and and SACC #858, the Blackish Tapaculo, Scytalopus latrans, is split into:

  • Blackish Tapaculo, Scytalopus latrans
  • Utcubamba Tapaculo, Scytalopus intermedius

Junin Tapaculo: The newly described Junin Tapaculo, Scytalopus gettyae, has been added (see Hosner et al., 2013). This bird has been known of for a while as the Satipo form of Large-footed Tapaculo and is not to be confused with the so-called Millpo Tapaculo, which occurs higher up. It appears to be part of the latrans group.


Rhinocryptidae: Tapaculos Wetmore, 1926 (1837)

12 genera, 65 species HBW-8

Pteroptochinae P. L. Sclater, 1858 (1852)

  1. White-throated Tapaculo, Scelorchilus albicollis
  2. Chucao Tapaculo, Scelorchilus rubecula
  3. Moustached Turca, Pteroptochos megapodius
  4. Black-throated Huet-huet, Pteroptochos tarnii
  5. Chestnut-throated Huet-huet, Pteroptochos castaneus

Lioscelinae Mauricio et al. 2012

  1. Rusty-belted Tapaculo, Liosceles thoracicus
  2. Spotted Bamboowren, Psilorhamphus guttatus

Rhinocryptinae Wetmore, 1926 (1837)

  1. Ocellated Tapaculo, Acropternis orthonyx
  2. Crested Gallito, Rhinocrypta lanceolata
  3. Sandy Gallito, Teledromas fuscus

Scytalopodinae J. Müller, 1846

Merulaxini Mauricio et al., 2012

  1. White-breasted Tapaculo, Eleoscytalopus indigoticus
  2. Bahia Tapaculo, Eleoscytalopus psychopompus
  3. Slaty Bristlefront, Merulaxis ater
  4. Stresemann's Bristlefront, Merulaxis stresemanni

Scytalopodini J. Müller, 1846

  1. Ash-colored Tapaculo, Myornis senilis
  2. Ochre-flanked Tapaculo, Eugralla paradoxa
  3. Marsh Tapaculo, Scytalopus iraiensis
  4. Mouse-colored Tapaculo, Scytalopus speluncae
  5. Boa Nova Tapaculo, Scytalopus gonzagai
  6. Brasilia Tapaculo, Scytalopus novacapitalis
  7. Diamantina Tapaculo, Scytalopus diamantinensis
  8. Planalto Tapaculo, Scytalopus pachecoi
  9. Rock Tapaculo, Scytalopus petrophilus
  10. Dusky Tapaculo, Scytalopus fuscus
  11. Magellanic Tapaculo, Scytalopus magellanicus
  12. Ancash Tapaculo, Scytalopus affinis
  13. White-winged Tapaculo, Scytalopus krabbei
  14. Paramillo Tapaculo, Scytalopus canus
  15. Paramo Tapaculo, Scytalopus opacus
  16. Loja Tapaculo, Scytalopus androstictus
  17. White-browed Tapaculo, Scytalopus superciliaris
  18. Zimmer's Tapaculo, Scytalopus zimmeri
  19. Puna Tapaculo, Scytalopus simonsi
  20. Neblina Tapaculo, Scytalopus altirostris
  21. Jalca Tapaculo, Scytalopus frankeae
  22. Ampay Tapaculo, Scytalopus whitneyi
  23. Vilcabamba Tapaculo, Scytalopus urubambae
  24. Diademed Tapaculo, Scytalopus schulenbergi
  25. Trilling Tapaculo, Scytalopus parvirostris
  26. Bolivian Tapaculo / Bolivian White-crowned Tapaculo, Scytalopus bolivianus
  27. Santa Marta Tapaculo, Scytalopus sanctaemartae
  28. White-crowned Tapaculo / Northern White-crowned Tapaculo, Scytalopus atratus
  29. Narino Tapaculo, Scytalopus vicinior
  30. Silvery-fronted Tapaculo, Scytalopus argentifrons
  31. Tacarcuna Tapaculo, Scytalopus panamensis
  32. Choco Tapaculo, Scytalopus chocoensis
  33. Magdalena Tapaculo, Scytalopus rodriguezi
  34. Stiles's Tapaculo, Scytalopus stilesi
  35. Tatama Tapaculo / Alto Pisones Tapaculo, Scytalopus alvarezlopezi
  36. Ecuadorian Tapaculo / El Oro Tapaculo, Scytalopus robbinsi
  37. Merida Tapaculo, Scytalopus meridanus
  38. Caracas Tapaculo, Scytalopus caracae
  39. Brown-rumped Tapaculo, Scytalopus latebricola
  40. Perija Tapaculo, Scytalopus perijanus
  41. Pale-bellied Tapaculo, Scytalopus griseicollis
  42. Spillmann's Tapaculo, Scytalopus spillmanni
  43. Chusquea Tapaculo, Scytalopus parkeri
  44. Long-tailed Tapaculo, Scytalopus micropterus
  45. Rufous-vented Tapaculo, Scytalopus femoralis
  46. Blackish Tapaculo, Scytalopus latrans
  47. Tschudi's Tapaculo, Scytalopus acutirostris
  48. Unicolored Tapaculo, Scytalopus unicolor
  49. Utcubamba Tapaculo, Scytalopus intermedius
  50. Large-footed Tapaculo, Scytalopus macropus
  51. Junin Tapaculo, Scytalopus gettyae

Formicariidae: Antthrushes G.R. Gray, 1840 (1825)

Notes — Formicariidae

Click for Formicariidae tree
Click for Formicariidae
species

The Antthrushes or Formicariidae are the last family before the Ovenbirds. We need to ask whether the Antthrushes belong with the Ovenbirds. The answer is no. The split between the Antthrushes and Ovenbirds dates to 32.5 mya, according to Harvey et al. (2020). All of the Ovenbirds share a common ancestor at about 21.3 mya. With such a gap, it would make no sense to combine them.

Antthrush Subfamilies: The structure of the Formicariidae is quite simple. There are two genera, Formicarius and Chamaeza. But these two genera are separated by 23.2 million years! It makes sense to rank them as subfamilies: Formicariinae and Chamaezinae. One thing that distinguishes them are the smooth colors on the underparts of the Formicariinae and the patterns (scallops, bars, etc.) under the Chamaezinae.

Black-faced Antthrush: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), the NACC decision 2020-B11 on the Mayan Antthrush, and the HBW Checklist, the Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius analis is split into:

  • Mayan Antthrush, Formicarius moniliger, including pallidus and intermedius
  • Northern Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius hoffmanni, including umbrosus, panamensis, virescens, and griseoventris
  • Southern Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius analis, including connectens, zamorae, crissalis, and paraensis

Striated Antthrush: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza nobilis is split into:

  • Western Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza nobilis, including rubida
  • Eastern Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza fulvipectus

Short-tailed Antthrush: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, which notes 5 song grous, the Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza campanisona is split into:

  • Brazilian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza campanisona, including tshororo
  • Roraiman Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza fulvescens, including obscura, yavii, and huachamacarii
  • Colombian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza columbiana, including punctigula
  • Venezuelan Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza venezuelana
  • Peruvian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza olivacea, including berlepschi and boliviana

Formicariidae: Antthrushes G.R. Gray, 1840 (1825)

2 genera, 18 species HBW-8

Formicariinae: Smooth Antthrushes G.R. Gray, 1840 (1825)

  1. Rufous-fronted Antthrush, Formicarius rufifrons
  2. Rufous-capped Antthrush, Formicarius colma
  3. Rufous-breasted Antthrush, Formicarius rufipectus
  4. Mayan Antthrush, Formicarius moniliger
  5. Black-headed Antthrush, Formicarius nigricapillus
  6. Northern Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius hoffmanni
  7. Southern Black-faced Antthrush, Formicarius analis

Chamaezinae: Patterned Antthrushes Informal

  1. Rufous-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza ruficauda
  2. Such's Antthrush / Cryptic Antthrush, Chamaeza meruloides
  3. Barred Antthrush, Chamaeza mollissima
  4. Schwartz's Antthrush, Chamaeza turdina
  5. Brazilian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza campanisona
  6. Western Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza nobilis
  7. Eastern Striated Antthrush, Chamaeza fulvipectus
  8. Roraiman Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza fulvescens
  9. Colombian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza columbiana
  10. Venezuelan Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza venezuelana
  11. Peruvian Short-tailed Antthrush, Chamaeza olivacea

Furnariidae: Ovenbirds G.R. Gray, 1840

72 genera, 347 species HBW-8

Furnariidae At the family level, the taxonomy agrees with the SACC, folding the woodcreepers into the Furnariidae as the subfamily Dendrocolaptinae rather than maintaining them as a separate family. That arrangement did not work because the woodcreepers are nested within the Furnariidae, as shown on the diagram to the right. The Furnariidae consists of three subfamilies: Sclerurinae (leaftossers and miners), Furnariinae (ovenbirds), and Dendrocolaptinae (woodcreepers). I arrange them as Sclerurinae, Dendrocolaptinae, Furnariinae because Furnariinae is much larger than Dendrocolaptinae.

Group Age
Melanopareiidae 35.0
Conopophagidae 33.8
Thamnophilidae 33.8
Myrmotheridae 35.2
Rhinocryptidae 33.5
Formicariidae 32.5
Furnariidae (broad) 32.5
Sclerurinae 21.3
Dendrocolaptinae 18.7
Furnariinae 18.7

If the woodcreepers were separated, the Furnariidae would no longer be monophyletic. The leaftossers and miners would also have to be separated. This could be done by promoting all three subfamilies to families. However, these families would be much younger than the other families in Furnariida. The table to the right gives the ages, in millions of years for the Furnariid families and the three groups in question.

Sibley and Monroe's attempt to base the level of each taxon on their age convinced me that a using fixed age scale for the entire avian tree is a very foolish approach. They demonstrate that it just doesn't do of good job of handling the variable diversity that we face when classifying birds. Think of their Fringillidae — a single family containing a ninth of all bird species. Nonetheless, I do think it reasonable to do so locally. In this case, locally means within the Furnariida, so we have one family Furnariidae, comprised of three subfamilies: Sclerurinae, Dendrocolaptinae, and Furnariinae.

Click for Leaftossers to Woodcreepers
Click for Sclerurinae-Dendrocolaptinae
species tree

Notes — Leaftossers and Miners

Sclerurinae: The two genera in Sclerurinae, leaftossers and miners, are quite different. Even a beginner will not mistake one for the other. They are also separated by about 17.7 million years of evolution, according to Harvey et al. (2020). To emphasize this, I have placed them in separate tribes, as has been done for other such taxa. The tribes are Sclerurinini (leaftossers) and Geosittini (miners).

Tawny-throated Leaftosser: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), the HBW Checklist, d'Horta et al. (2013), and Cooper and Cuervo (2017), the Tawny-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus mexicanus, is split into:

  • Mexicqn Leaftosser, Sclerurus mexicanus
  • Dusky Leaftosser, Sclerurus pullus
  • Pacific Leaftosser, Sclerurus obscurior
  • Andean Leaftosser, Sclerurus andinus
  • Amazonian Leaftosser, Sclerurus macconnelli, including peruvianus, macconnelli, and bahiae

The SACC currently considers this complex two species with the South Amerian birds collectively called South American Leaftosser. See the SACC Proposals 603, 752, and 860.


Sclerurinae: Leaftossers and Miners Swainson, 1827

Sclerurini: Leaftossers Swainson 1827

  1. Scaly-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus guatemalensis
  2. Black-tailed Leaftosser, Sclerurus caudacutus
  3. Gray-throated Leaftosser, Sclerurus albigularis
  4. Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, Sclerurus scansor
  5. Mexican Leaftosser, Sclerurus mexicanus
  6. Dusky Leaftosser, Sclerurus pullus
  7. Short-billed Leaftosser, Sclerurus rufigularis
  8. Pacific Leaftosser / Dusky Leaftosser, Sclerurus obscurior
  9. Andean Leaftosser, Sclerurus andinus
  10. Amazonian Leaftosser, Sclerurus macconnelli

Geosittini: Miners Informal

  1. Coastal Miner, Geositta peruviana
  2. Slender-billed Miner, Geositta tenuirostris
  3. Common Miner, Geositta cunicularia
  4. Puna Miner, Geositta punensis
  5. Campo Miner, Geositta poeciloptera
  6. Thick-billed Miner, Geositta crassirostris
  7. Rufous-banded Miner, Geositta rufipennis
  8. Grayish Miner, Geositta maritima
  9. Dark-winged Miner, Geositta saxicolina
  10. Creamy-rumped Miner, Geositta isabellina
  11. Short-billed Miner, Geositta antarctica

Notes — Woodcreepers

Woodcreeper Tribes: We now turn to the woodcreepers. I've divided the woodcreeper subfamily Dendrocolaptinae into three tribes: Glyphorynchini (for the Wedge-billed Woodcreeper), Sittasomini, and Dendrocolaptini. The boundaries of these groups have been generally stable, although there is some disagreement abour their relationships. Of course, the current version of the TiF list follows Harvey et al. (2020).

This arrangment has the tribe Glyphorynchini as basal woodcreeper, increasing the case that it really is basal. This concurs with Derryberry et al. (2012), but disagrees with Derryberry et al. (2011), Moyle et al. (2009b), and Ohlsen et al. (2013), which have it sister to Sittasomini.

Irestedt et al. (2009b), Derryberry et al. (2011, 2012), and Moyle et al. (2009b) can be read as concurring that Sittasomini and Dendrocolaptini are natural groups. They agree on the membership and even the substructure of the Dendrocolaptini. They are all consistent with the same genera, something only accomplished in the last few years.

Both the Sittasomini and Dendrocolaptini and have been considered natural groups on morphological grounds too. There is an interesting discussion of this in Marantz et al. (2003, aka HBW-8), which distinguishes a group of “strong-billed” woodcreepers, meaning the Dendrocolaptini and “intermediate” woodcreepers (Glyphorynchini and Sittasomini), which have some traits of the other ovenbirds that are not shared by the strong-billed woodcreepers. In other words, they are morphologically intermediate between the other ovenbirds and the strong-billed woodcreepers.

The big disagreement concerns the position of Glyphorynchus. Irestedt et al. and Derryberry et al. (2012) have it in the basal position, while Derryberry et al. (2011), Moyle et al. (2009b), and Ohlsen et al. (2013) have it sister to Dendrocolaptini. What can one conclude? Since Harvey et al. (2020) also endorse the basal position, I've gone with that.

Within Sittasomini, Deconychura has been split into two (Derryberry et al., 2010a). As a result the Spot-throated Woodcreeper is now Certhiasomus stictolaemus. It is basal in Sittasomini.

Long-tailed Woodcreeper: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), Barbosa (2010), and the HBW Checklist, the Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Deconychura longicauda is split into:

  • Little Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Deconychura typica, including darienensis and minor
  • Northern Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Deconychura longicauda
  • Southern Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Deconychura pallida, including connectens and zimmeri

This complex also contains an undescribed species from the east Andes of Peru (Barbosa, 2010). Not only was it sampled by Barbosa, but apparently also by Harvey et al. (2020).

Olivaceous Woodcreeper: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), the HBW Checklist, and Boseman (2006), the Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Sittasomus sylviellus is split into:

  • Amazonian Woodcreeper, Sittasomus amazonus, including axillaris, transitivus, and viridis
  • Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Sittasomus sylviellus, including olivaceus
  • Reiser's Woodcreeper, Sittasomus reiseri
  • Chaco Woodcreeper, Sittasomus griseicapillus
  • Grayish Woodcreeper, Sittasomus griseus, including jaliscensis, sylvioides, gracileus, perijanus, and tachirensis
  • Pacific Woodcreeper, Sittasomus aequatorialis

Plain-brown Woodcreeper complex: Based on Schultz et al. (2019) and Weir and Price (2011), with some help from Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Plain-brown Woodcreeper complex has been reorganized. The complex, which included only three species (Plain-winged, Tawny-winged, Plain-brown) in H&M-4, is now comprised of four species:

  • Tawny-winged Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla anabatina, including typhla and saturata
  • Plain-brown Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla fuliginosa, including rufoolivacea, trumaii (deprecated); ridgwayi, lafresnayei (both parts); meruloides, barinensis, deltana; phaeochroa, and neglecta (deprecated)
  • d'Orbigny's Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla atrirostris
  • Plain-winged Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla turdina, including taunayi

The subspecies taunayi is transferred to the Plain-winged Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla turdina.

Schultz et al. (2019) carried out extensive genetic testing of many individuals from this complex. They have carefully sorted out the subspecies of D. meruloides (see their Figure 2 and associated text). The subspecies lafresnayei is paraphyletic. That will have to be dealt with at some point. The subspecies can be grouped. The ridgwayi group also contains part of lafresnayei and the meruloides group also contains barinensis, deltana, and the remainder of lafresnayei. The third group is phaeochroa including neglecta. They could not identify a separate lineage for neglecta and it is perhaps best sunk into phaeochroa.

At this point we have 7 potential species-level taxa, the groups: atrirostris, turdina, fuliginosa, anabatina, meruloides, ridgwayi, and phaeochroa. So how do they fit together?

There's disagreement between the mitochondrial DNA tree and the multilocus tree. I follow the multilocus tree. In that case, lacking other data, I apply a 2 million year cutoff for species status. That yields 4 species, the groups anabatina, atrirostris, and turdina, and the combined group consisting of the fuliginosa, meruloides, ridgwayi, and phaeochroa groups. The name fuliginosa has priority. We also need an English name for atrirostris. Cory and Hellmayr (1925) called it d'Orbigny's Woodcreeper.

I have left the question of species status of ridgwayi, and phaeochroa for another day.

Finally, for those who need to revise their lists, or consider that there might be further splits, I draw your attention to range maps in Figures 5 and 6 in Schultz et al. (2019).

Red-billed Woodcreeper: Harvey et al. (2020) and Derryberry et al. (2012) provide support for Silva and Oren's (1995) treatment of Hylexetastes as four species. Accordingly, Red-billed Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes perrotii, is split into:

  • Red-billed Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes perrotii
  • Uniform Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes uniformis
  • Brigida's Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes brigidai

Strong-billed Woodcreeper: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus, is split into:

  • Amazonian Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes orenocensis, including berlepschi, paraensis, carajaensis, and obsoletus
  • Central American Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes emigrans, including omiltemensis, sclateri, costaricensis, and panamensis
  • Andean Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus, including sanctaemartae, rostratus, virgatus, procerus, macarenae, neblinae, tenebrosus, ignotus, crassirostris, compressirostris, phaeopygus, lineatocephalus, and solivagus

Ocellated Woodcreeper: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), Sousa-Neves, Aleixo, and Sequeira (2013), and the HBW Checklist, the Ocellated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus ocellatus is split into:

  • Ocellated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus ocellatus, including perplexus
  • Line-crowned Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus beauperthuysii, including lineatocapilla

This builds on the previous split of Tschudi's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus chunchotambo from Ocellated Woodcreeper. I found the map in Sousa-Neves et al. to be very helpful for understanding the distribution of this complex. Their area A is the Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper, areas B and C, which are south of the Amazon are Ocellated Woodcreeper, area D is Line-crowned Woodcreeper (north of the Amazon and west of the Rio Negro), and area E and the unlabelled yellow zone is Tschudi's Woodcreeper. Both Line-crowned and Tschudi's are present in the cross-hatched area.

Buff-throated Woodcreeper complex: The situation with the Cocoa (Xiphorhynchus susurrans), Buff-throated (X. guttatus), and Lafresnaye's (X. guttatoides) Woodcreepers is now clearer due to Rocha et al. (2015) and Aleixo (2001). I currently recognize 3 species in the complex.

  • Lafresnaye's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus guttatoides, including dorgibnyanus, eytoni, gracilirostris, and vicinalis (south and west of the Amazon/Negro).
  • Cocoa Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus susurrans (Central America, Colombian Andes, northern Venezuela).
  • Buff-throated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus guttatus, including connectens and polystictus (north and east of the Amazon/Negro, Atlantic Forest).

Harvey et al. (2020) and Rocha et al. (2015) have different takes on the relationships here. I've followed Rocha et al. as it includes all of the taxa in the complex. In that case, the Cocoa and Buff-throated Woodcreepers are sister species, with the Lafresnaye's complex more distantly related. Harvey et al. insert the Black-striped Woodcreeper into the mix, as sister to the Cocoa Woodcreeper. They did not include Lafresnaye's in their analysis. I've a question mark on the Black-striped in the species tree to indicate that there is a problem here.

The Lafresnaye's complex may contain two additional species. However, as Rocha et al. (2015) point out, it would be prudent to sample upriver before accepting further splits. The dark-billed subspecies east of the Xingu (eytoni and gracilirostris) are sister taxa and only distantly related to the other subspecies of Lafresnaye's. They have sometimes been united as Dusky-billed Woodcreeper with the other dark-billed subspecies, vicinalis. However, the sampled vicinalis are quite a bit more closely related to guttatoides than to eytoni or gracilirostris. The subspecies vicinalis actually ranges from the Madeira to the Xingu (not to the Tapajós, as previously thought). It has been thought that some are intergrades between eytoni and guttatoides, but that was not supported by Rocha et al.'s samples.

Curve-billed Scythebill: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), Aleixo et al. (2013), Portes et al. (2013), and the HBW Checklist, the Curve-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus procurvoides, is split into:

  • Xingu Scythebill, Campylorhamphus multostriatus
  • Tapajos Scythebill, Campylorhamphus probatus, including cardosoi
  • Curve-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus procurvoides, including sanus and gyldenstolpei

Lineated Woodcreeper complex: Based on Rodrigues et al. (2013) and SACC proposals #620, #660, #868, and #894, the Lineated Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes albolineatus, has been is split into 4 species. They are:

  • Guianan Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes albolineatus
  • Duida Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes duidae
  • Inambari Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fatimalimae
  • Dusky-capped Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus, including layardi and madeirae

Dendrocolaptinae: Woodcreepers G.R. Gray, 1840

Glyphorynchini: Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Sharpe 1901

  1. Wedge-billed Woodcreeper, Glyphorynchus spirurus

Sittasomini: Intermediate Woodcreepers Ridgway 1911

  1. Spot-throated Woodcreeper, Certhiasomus stictolaemus
  2. Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Deconychura longicauda
  3. Northern Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Deconychura longicauda
  4. Little Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Deconychura typica
  5. Southern Long-tailed Woodcreeper, Deconychura pallida
  6. Amazonian Woodcreeper, Sittasomus amazonus
  7. Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Sittasomus sylviellus
  8. Reiser's Woodcreeper, Sittasomus reiseri
  9. Chaco Woodcreeper, Sittasomus griseicapillus
  10. Grayish Woodcreeper, Sittasomus griseus
  11. Pacific Woodcreeper, Sittasomus aequatorialis
  12. Tyrannine Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla tyrannina
  13. White-chinned Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla merula
  14. Ruddy Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla homochroa
  15. Tawny-winged Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla anabatina
  16. Plain-brown Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla fuliginosa
  17. d'Orbigny's Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla atrirostris
  18. Plain-winged Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla turdina

Dendrocolaptini: Strong-billed Woodcreepers GR Gray 1840

  1. Long-billed Woodcreeper, Nasica longirostris
  2. Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper, Dendrexetastes rufigula
  3. Northern Barred-Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae
  4. Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes certhia
  5. Planalto Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes platyrostris
  6. Black-banded Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes picumnus
  7. Hoffmanns's Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes hoffmannsi
  8. Bar-bellied Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes stresemanni
  9. Red-billed Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes perrotii
  10. Uniform Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes uniformis
  11. Brigida's Woodcreeper, Hylexetastes brigidai
  12. White-throated Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes albicollis
  13. Amazonian Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes orenocensis
  14. Moustached Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes falcirostris
  15. Central American Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes emigrans
  16. Andean Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus
  17. Great Rufous Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes major
  18. Elegant Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus elegans
  19. Spix's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus spixii
  20. Ceara Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus atlanticus
  21. Lesser Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus fuscus
  22. Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus pardalotus
  23. Ocellated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus ocellatus
  24. Tschudi's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus chunchotambo
  25. Line-crowned Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus beauperthuysii
  26. Spotted Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus erythropygius
  27. Olive-backed Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus triangularis
  28. Striped Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus obsoletus
  29. Ivory-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus flavigaster
  30. Black-striped Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus
  31. Lafresnaye's Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus guttatoides
  32. Cocoa Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus susurrans
  33. Buff-throated Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus guttatus
  34. Straight-billed Woodcreeper, Dendroplex picus
  35. Zimmer's Woodcreeper, Dendroplex kienerii
  36. Black-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus falcularius
  37. Brown-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus pusillus
  38. Xingu Scythebill, Campylorhamphus multostriatus
  39. Curve-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus procurvoides
  40. Red-billed Scythebill, Campylorhamphus trochilirostris
  41. Tapajos Scythebill, Campylorhamphus probatus
  42. Greater Scythebill, Drymotoxeres pucheranii
  43. Scimitar-billed Woodcreeper, Drymornis bridgesii
  44. Scalloped Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes falcinellus
  45. Scaled Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes squamatus
  46. Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes angustirostris
  47. Duida Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes duidae
  48. Inambari Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fatimalimae
  49. Dusky-capped Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus
  50. Guianan Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes albolineatus
  51. Streak-headed Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes souleyetii
  52. Montane Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger
  53. White-striped Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes leucogaster
  54. Spot-crowned Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes affinis

Furnariinae: True Ovenbirds G.R. Gray, 1840

The Xenops Problem

I have redone the ovenbirds multiple times during TiF's history, and have always had a problem with the genus Xenops, usually ranking it as a subfamily: Xenopinae. The problem with Xenops has been a lack of clarity whether Xenops is closer to the woodcreepers or true ovenbirds.

Some gene trees put Xenops is sister to Dendrocolaptinae, while others put it sister to Furnariinae (see Fjeldså et al., 2005, 2007; Irestedt et al., 2009b; Moyle et al., 2009b; Derryberry et al., 2011). Fjeldså et al. (2005) tell a nice story that makes Xenops somewhat analogous to a piculet. I have some sympathy for this argument as they sometimes remind me of piculets. Moreover, the nuclear RAG-1 and RAG-2 genes that Moyle et al. rely on may change too slowly to resolve all of the find details of the tree. On the other hand, the other genes used by Derryberry et al. did not change the RAG picture. Further, the cytochrome-b tree in Fjeldså et al. (2005) puts Xenops with the Furnariinae. However, Fjeldså et al. (2005, 2007) both use additional genes and end up with Xenops near the woodcreepers. Irestedt et al. (2009b) agree in their overall tree, but the is considerable disagreement among the individual gene trees.

The newer analyses, including Derryberry et al. (2011) and Harvey et al. (2020) mostly place Xenops sister to the rest of the ovenbirds. This is not universal. Fjeldså et al. (2020) is an exception. My current take is that is a transitional group between the woodcreepers and the rest of the ovenbirds, and as such, naturallly groups with the ovenbirds. I think the balance of the genetic information supports this, and its time to declare this settled, or at least settled enough to rerank Xenopinae as the basal tribe in the ovenbird subfamily Furnariinae.

Plain Xenops: Based on Harvey and Brumfield (2015) and the HBW Checklist, the Plain Xenops, Xenops minutus, is split into:

  • White-throated Xenops, Xenops minutus
  • Northwestern Plain Xenops, Xenops mexicanus, includes ridgwayi, littoralis, olivaceus, and neglectus
  • Southeastern Plain Xenops, Xenops genibarbus, includes remoratus, ruficaudus, obsoletus, and alagoanus

Rufous-tailed Xenops: There's one other complication with Xenops. The Rufous-tailed Xenops does not belong in Xenops (Moyle et al., 2009b; Irestedt et al., 2009b). Fortunately, there is an available genus name: Microxenops (Chapman 1914). Accordingly, the Rufous-tailed Xenops becomes Microxenops milleri and moves to Pygarrhichadini. The genus Megaxenops was also formerly considered part of this group, but Remsen (2003) had already noted that it is not closely related to Xenops. It's in Philydorini.

Ovenbird Tribes

I've changed the tribes a bit based on Harvey et al. (2020). As mentioned above, rather than treat Xenops as a subfamily, I have demoted it to a tribe in Furnariinae.

I've also split the tribe Furnariini into two tribes: Pseudocolaptini and Furnariini. Harvey et al. (2020) found that they form separate branches of the ovenbird tree, being part of a grade rather than being sister taxa. The Harvey et al. tree also does the same to Philydorini and Furnariini, and moves Margarornini to a more basal position.

The list here follows the recent comprehensive analysis of the suboscines by Harvey et al. (2020). As far as the ovenbirds are concerned, the differences between it and Derryberry et al. (2011) are small. Derryberry and 8 co-authors sampled all but 13 of the Furnariid species. Harvey et al. have done even better, with coverage of a number of possible splits and even some undescribed taxa.

The Harvey et al. topology should be seen as the culmination of a line of work that includes previous papers by Chesser et al. (2007), Fjeldså et al. (2005, 2007), Gonzalez and Wink (2008), Irestedt et al. (2004a, 2006a, 2009b), Moyle et al. (2009b), and Claramunt et al. (2010). Earlier versions of TiF used an overall arrangement is driven by the then recent papers by Irestedt et al. (2009b) and Moyle et al. (2009b).

I'm happy to say that, except for the changes mentioned above, I'm able to retain the same tribes (with the same members) as before Derryberry et al. The fact that this structure remains even though a number of new genes have been added to the analysis suggests that it is correct. There remain some minor issues concerning the arrangement of these tribes, both externally and internally, but the overall picture seems stable at this point.

Click for old Furnariinae tree
Furnariinae genus tree based on Harvey et al. (2020).
Click the diagram for the previous version based on
Moyle et al. (2009b) and Derryberry et al. (2011).

Following Xenopini, we have Berlepschia by itself as tribe Berlepschiini. It is followed by two more small tribe, Pygarrhichadini and Margarornini. Next comes the Furnariini-Philydorini group. According to Harvey et al. (2020), it's a grade of three tribes, but some earlier analyses suggested they may be sisters. Finally, we have the largest tribe of all, Synallaxini.

There have also been some changes within these groups, sometimes involving reoganized genera. Note that except for splits and lumps, the species composition of each tribe has remained virtually unchanged since version 2.13 of this page (June 30, 2009). However, some have been moved to different genera.

Notes — Philydorini

There are several changes within Philydorini resulting from Derryberry et al. (2011). One big one is the dismemberment of Philydor itself! It left only three species in Philydor. The other six were reallocated as follows:

  • The Ochre-breasted and Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaners moved to Anabacerthia
  • I initially moved the Buff-fronted and Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaners to Ancistrops. However, the differences between them and the Chestnut-winged Hookbill are rather large, so I've placed the two foliage-gleaners in the genus Dendroma (Swainson 1837, type rufa). See SACC #819. These are not that close to Philydor)
  • The Rufous-rumped and Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaners first moved to Megaxenops. They didn't seem to fit comfortably with the Great Xenops and are now in Anabazenops.

Further, the two recurvebills Simoxenops have been moved into Syndactyla. They sit fairly deeply in Syndactyla, and even though they are distinctive, I don't see any other reasonable way to handle this.

The remaining changes to the Philydorini are confined to the Automolus branch. Chestnut-capped (Henna-capped) Foliage-gleaner is transferred from Hylocryptus to Clibanornis. The woodhaunteer genus Hyloctistes has been merged into Automolus. The Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner and the Ruddy Foliage-gleaner complex have been removed from Automolus and are now placed in Hylocryptus.

Cryptic Treehunter: The newly discovered (and possibly extinct) Cryptic Treehunter, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti, has been added. See Mazar Barnett and Buzzetti (2014) and Claramunt (2014b).

Sharp-billed Treehunter: This has been moved from Heliobletus to Philydor. Also, note that one of the subspecies currently doesn't have a name! The problem is that contaminatus and camargoi refer to the same subspecies! See Penhallurick (2011) for details. For years we've heard there will be a replacement… we're still waiting.

Also, there seems to be a sister species in Bahia. It hasn't been described yet, but is included in Harvey et al. (2020).

Ruddy Foliage-gleaner complex: Both the Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner, Clibanornis rufipectus, and Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner, Clibanornis erythrocephalus, are embedded in the complex. We First transfer all of these species to Hylocryptus (Chapman 1919, type erythrocephalus).

Based on Harvey et al. (2020), Claramunt et al. (2013), and the HBW Checklist, the Ruddy Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus rubiginosus, is split into:

  • Rusty Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus rubiginosus, including guerrerensis, veraepacis, and fumosus
  • Cinnamon-throated Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus cinnamomeigula
  • Dusky Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus obscurus, including venezuelanus, caquetae, brunnescens,, and watkinsorum
  • Black-tailed Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus nigricauda, including saturatus and sasaimae

Here watkinsorum has replaced watkinsi. It must take this form because Hellmayr intended it to refer to both the Watkins brothers, not just one of them. They were the ones who collected the type specimen. See Costas (2017).

Automolus: The two basal species in Automolus are transferred to Cryptomolus (Claramunt et al. 2013, type rufipileatus).

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner: In Supplement 59 (2018) the NACC split the Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner, Automolus exsertus, from the Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Automolus ochrolaemus. Based on Harvey et al. (2020), the HBW Checklist, and Freeman and Montgomery (2017), I've redone the complex as follows:

  • Western Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Automolus cervinigularis, including hypophaeus and pallidigularis
  • Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner, Automolus exsertus
  • Eastern Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Automolus ochrolaemus, including turdinus and auricularis

Part of the point is that it seems clear from Freeman and Montgomery that exsertus is vocally different from the Western forms. NACC are clearly of the opinion that it is also different from those to the east, as if on an island (sky island?). Harvey et al. (2020) found 2 million years distance between the Costa Rican birds and those from Loreto, Peru, which are in the ochrolaemus group. This gives us the three species solution above. Yes, it is a bit speculative.

Striped Woodhaunter: Another IOC/Ridgely-Tudor (2009) change is to split Striped Woodhaunter, Automolus subulatus, into Western Woodhaunter, Automolus virgatus and Eastern Woodhaunter, Automolus subulatus.

Notes — Pseudocolaptini

Pacific Tuftedcheek: To improve alignment with the IOC list, I have split the Pacific Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes johnsoni, from the Buffy Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes lawrencii, as advocated by Ridgely and Tudor (2009). The forthcoming article by Forcina, Boesman, and Jowers (2021) shows that all three tuftedcheek species are roughly equally distant from one another.

Notes — Furnariini

Pale-legged Hornero: Another IOC/Ridgely and Tudor (2009) split involves the horneros. Pacific Hornero, Furnarius cinnamomeus, and Caribbean Hornero, Furnarius longirostris, have been split from Pale-legged Hornero, Furnarius leucopus.

Pale-legged Hornero: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Pale-legged Hornero, Furnarius leucopus, is further split into:

  • Tricolored Hornero, Furnarius tricolor, including araguaiae and assimilis
  • Pale-legged Hornero, Furnarius leucopus

Upucerthia: The genus Upucerthia has been divided into 4 four parts (Chesser et al., 2007; Fjeldså et al. 2007). Two species are moved to Ochetorhynchus (in Pygarrhichadini), which also absorbs Chilia and Eremobius; two others form the new genus Tarphonomus (in Pseudocolaptini; Chesser et al., 2007); U. serrana is placed in the new genus Geocerthia (Chesser et al., 2009); the rest remain in Upucerthia, which shrinks a bit with the lumping of Plain-breasted Earthcreeper, Upucerthia jelskii, into Buff-breasted Earthcreeper, Upucerthia validirostris (Areta and Pearman, 2013). The last two genera remain with the Furnariini.

Cipo Cinclodes: The Cipo Cinclodes, Cinclodes espinhacensis, is treated as a subspecies of the Long-tailed Cinclodes, Cinclodes pabsti. See SACC proposal #548.

Cinclodes: The arrangement of Cinclodes species now follows Harvey et al. (2020), which is similar to Derryberry et al. (2011) and Sanín et al. (2009). Sanín et al. presented evidence for splitting the Bar-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes fuscus, into three species. Jaramillo (2003) suggested the English names Buff-winged Cinclodes for Cinclodes fuscus and Cream-winged Cinclodes for Cinclodes albiventris. SACC has named Cinclodes albidiventris Chestnut-winged Cinclodes. The Chestnut-winged Cinclodes is the northern group, with a range extending into NW Peru (Cajamarca and Piura). It includes subspecies heterurus and oreobates, in addition to albidiventris. The central species is the Cream-winged Cinclodes, ranging from N Peru (Amazonas) to N Chile (Antofagasta) and NW Argentina (La Rioja). It apparently includes the isolated subspecies riojanus, rufus, and yzurietaeof NW Argentina, as well as tucumanus and albiventris. The southern Buff-winged Cinclodes is then monotypic.

Notes — Synallaxini

Tawny Tit-Spinetail: Following H&M-4 (Dickinson and Christidis, 2014), the Tawny Tit-Spinetail, Sylviorthorhynchus yanacensis, has moved to Sylviorthorhynchus from Leptasthenura. These two sister species are deeply divided from Leptasthenura (Derryberry et al., 2011).

Plain-mantled Tit-Spinetail: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Plain-mantled Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura aegithaloides, is split into:

  • Plain-mantled Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura aegithaloides, including grisescens
  • Pallid Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura pallida
  • Buffy Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura berlepschi

Plain Thornbird: The Plain Thornbird, Phacellodomus inornatus has been split from Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Phacellodomus rufifrons, matching IOC and Ridgely and Tudor (2009).

Asthenes: The biggest changes in the Synallaxini involve the genera Asthenes, Oreophylax, and Schizoeaca. Here the usual generic limits do not reflect the gene tree. The recent paper by Derryberry et al. (2010b) has done much to straighten out the situation, and Harvey et al. (2020) did even more.

Four of the Asthenes, humicola, patagonica, steinbachi, and cactorum, do not really belong to the group. Derryberry et al. (2010b) created the new genus Pseudasthenes for this clade. This is a bit surprising as cactorum has been considered a subspecies of the Cordilleran Canastero, Siptornoides modestus, which is definitely not a close relative.

The remaining species of the Asthenes, Oreophylax, and Schizoeaca group form a clade. Derryberry et al. (2010b) suggest treating them all as Asthenes. That's sort of what I do, but using a very narrow conception of Asthenes. But first, we'll look at the broad version of Asthenes, Short-billed Canastero to White-chinned Thistletail.

There are 3 major branches of the broad Asthenes. I separate each as a genus: "Asthenes", Siptornoides, and Asthenes. Generally speaking, the first two groups are canasteros, and the last thistletails. The basal branch includes dorbignyi, baeri, and berlepschi. All of these have previously been considered part of a superspecies. I have separated them and others as "Asthenes" as I have not found an available genus name.

The remaining species of the broad Asthenes are in two clades. The first consists of the birds now in Siptornoides The other, which is comprised of the remaining Asthenes, includes the species formerly placed in Oreophylax and Schizoeaca. These are mostly called thistletails. The number of species involved is rather surprising as all of the old Schizoeaca have been considered conspecific. Note also the geographic separation between the Andean Schizoeaca and Oreophylax (Itatiaia Spinetail) of SE Brazil.

Vilcabamba Thistletail: There is a split in the former Schizoeaca based on Hosner et al. (2015b) and SACC #697. The Ayacucho Thistletail, Asthenes ayacuchensis, has been split from Vilcabamba Thistletail, Asthenes vilcabambae.

Creamy-breasted Canastero: As recommended by IOC and Ridgely and Tudor (2009), Creamy-breasted Canastero, "Asthenes" dorbignyi has been split. Additionally, there is a further split based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist. This gives us:

  • Pale-tailed Canastero, "Asthenes" huancavelicae
  • White-tailed Canastero, "Asthenes" usheri
  • Rusty-vented Canastero, "Asthenes" dorbignyi
  • Dark-winged Canastero, "Asthenes" arequipae

The dorbignyi group include at least one undescribed taxon, the “Ancash” Canastero.

Ancash Canastero Ancash Canastero Ancash Canastero
“Ancash” Canastero

Another supposed member of the dorbignyi group, luizae, is on a separate branch that is basal in the Siptornoides clade.

Ash-browed Spinetail: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), the subspecies debilis is sister to the Creamy-crested Spinetail, Cranioleuca albicapilla. As a result, Ash-browed Spinetail, Cranioleuca curtata, is split into:

  • Slender-billed Spinetail, Cranioleuca debilis
  • Ash-browed Spinetail, Cranioleuca curtata, including cisandina

As you can see from tree, these are not sister taxa. The name Slender-billed has been used in the past for debilis, e.g., by Cory and Hellmayr.

White-bellied Spinetail: The White-bellied Spinetail has been placed in the new genus Mazaria (Claramunt, 2014a) as Mazaria propinqua. SACC still lists it in Synallaxis, but genetic data (Derryberry et al., 2011) showed it was sister to Schoeniophylax and I moved it there. As Claramunt (2014a) notes, the two species are so different that putting the White-bellied Spinetail in Schoeniophylax makes the genus undiagnosible. He established the new genus Mazaria to solve this problem.

Undescribed Spinetail: On a Field Guides trip with Bret Whitney and Marcello Barreiros, Bret pointed out an undescribed Certhiaxis spinetail on a river island. As we were in the Araguaia drainage, this must be the unnamed Certhiaxis mentioned in the Harvey et al. (2020) tree. It's pretty similar to a Yellow-chinned Spinetail, without a yellow chin. I didn't add it to the list, but Harvey et al. (2020) included it in their analysis and you can find it in the species tree next to the Yellow-chinned Spinetail, Certhiaxis cinnamomeus.

Necklaced Spinetail: Based on Harvey et al. (2020), Stopiglia et al. (2020), SACC #882 and the HBW Checklist, the Necklaced Spinetail, Synallaxis stictothorax, is split into:

  • Necklaced Spinetail, Synallaxis stictothorax
  • Chinchipe Spinetail, Synallaxis chinchipensis

White-lored Spinetail: Harvey et al. (2020) found that a subspecies of Plain-crowned Spinetail, Synallaxis gujanensis is closer to White-lored Spinetail, Synallaxis albilora than to the rest of gujanensis. The race in question is present in Santa Cruz, Boliva, near El Tuná and I infer it is certhiola. Apparently it looks a lot like albilora.

Rufous Spinetail: Based on Harvey et al. (2020) and the HBW Checklist, the Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis unirufa, is split into:

  • Merida Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis meridana
  • Perija Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis munoztebari
  • Colombian Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis ochrogaster
  • Peruvian Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis unirufa
Click for Xenopinae thru Furnariini
Click for Xenopinae thru
Furnariini species

The Synallaxini have undergone further changes due to Derryberry et al. (2011). There's some reallocation in the Cranioleuca branch. Cranioleuca loses two species, Sulphur-throated Spinetail moves to Limnoctites and Speckled Spinetail moves to Thripophaga. Conversely, Thripophaga loses Russet-mantled Softtail to Cranioleuca. It also gains the newly discovered Delta Amacuro Softtail, Thripophaga amacurensis (Hilty et al., 2013). Cranioleuca also loses a species due to the lumping of Baron's Spinetail, Cranioleuca baroni, into Line-cheeked Spinetail, Cranioleuca antisiensis. See Seeholzer and Brumfield (2018) and SACC Proposal 762 for details.

I had previously separated several species of Synallaxis as Poecilurus in an attempt to avoid paraphyly. The more complete analysis of Derryberry et al. showed that this was a failure. According, I have returned the Poecilurus species to Synallaxis. Moreover, I've also merged the monotypic Gyalophylax and Siptornopsis into Synallaxis. Although Synallaxis is a large genus, the differences between the Synallaxis spinetails are small enough that I see no reason to subdivide it.

Furnariinae: True Ovenbirds G.R. Gray, 1840

Xenopinae: Xenops Bonaparte, 1854

  1. Streaked Xenops, Xenops rutilans
  2. Slender-billed Xenops, Xenops tenuirostris
  3. White-throated Xenops, Xenops minutus
  4. Northwestern Plain Xenops, Xenops mexicanus
  5. Southeastern Plain Xenops, Xenops genibarbus

Berlepschiini: Palmcreeper Ohlson et al., 2013a

  1. Point-tailed Palmcreeper, Berlepschia rikeri

Pygarrhichadini Wolters, 1977

  1. Rufous-tailed Xenops, Microxenops milleri
  2. White-throated Treerunner, Pygarrhichas albogularis
  3. Crag Chilia, Ochetorhynchus melanurus
  4. Rock Earthcreeper, Ochetorhynchus andaecola
  5. Straight-billed Earthcreeper, Ochetorhynchus ruficaudus
  6. Band-tailed Earthcreeper, Ochetorhynchus phoenicurus

Margarornini: Barbtails and Treerunners Ridgway, 1911

  1. Spotted Barbtail, Premnoplex brunnescens
  2. White-throated Barbtail, Premnoplex tatei
  3. Pearled Treerunner, Margarornis squamiger
  4. Ruddy Treerunner, Margarornis rubiginosus
  5. Beautiful Treerunner, Margarornis bellulus
  6. Fulvous-dotted Treerunner / Star-chested Treerunner, Margarornis stellatus

Philydorini: Foliage-gleaners, Treehunters Sclater & Salvin, 1873

  1. Cryptic Treehunter, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti
  2. Pale-browed Treehunter, Cichlocolaptes leucophrus
  3. Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-gleaner, Philydor pyrrhodes
  4. Sharp-billed Treehunter, Philydor contaminatus
  5. Black-capped Foliage-gleaner, Philydor atricapillus
  6. Alagoas Foliage-gleaner, Philydor novaesi
  7. Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaner, Anabazenops fuscipennis
  8. Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner, Anabazenops erythrocercus
  9. Dusky-cheeked Foliage-gleaner / Bamboo Foliage-gleaner, Anabazenops dorsalis
  10. White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Anabazenops fuscus
  11. Great Xenops, Megaxenops parnaguae
  12. Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia lichtensteini
  13. White-browed Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia amaurotis
  14. Montane Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia striaticollis
  15. Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia variegaticeps
  16. Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia ruficaudata
  17. Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla rufosuperciliata
  18. Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner / Planalto Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla dimidiata
  19. White-throated Foliage-gleaner / Tepui Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla roraimae
  20. Peruvian Recurvebill, Syndactyla ucayalae
  21. Bolivian Recurvebill, Syndactyla striata
  22. Guttulate Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla guttulata
  23. Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla ruficollis
  24. Lineated Foliage-gleaner, Syndactyla subalaris
  25. Chestnut-winged Hookbill, Ancistrops strigilatus
  26. Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner, Dendroma rufa
  27. Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner, Dendroma erythroptera
  28. Chestnut-capped Foliage-gleaner / Henna-capped Foliage-gleaner, Clibanornis rectirostris
  29. Canebrake Groundcreeper, Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides
  30. Dusky Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus obscurus
  31. Cinnamon-throated Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus cinnamomeigula
  32. Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus rufipectus
  33. Rusty Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus rubiginosus
  34. Black-tailed Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus nigricauda
  35. Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner, Hylocryptus erythrocephalus
  36. Uniform Treehunter, Thripadectes ignobilis
  37. Flammulated Treehunter, Thripadectes flammulatus
  38. Rufous-backed Treehunter / Peruvian Treehunter, Thripadectes scrutator
  39. Striped Treehunter, Thripadectes holostictus
  40. Streak-breasted Treehunter, Thripadectes rufobrunneus
  41. Streak-capped Treehunter, Thripadectes virgaticeps
  42. Black-billed Treehunter, Thripadectes melanorhynchus
  43. Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner, Cryptomolus rufipileatus
  44. Brown-rumped Foliage-gleaner, Cryptomolus melanopezus
  45. Western Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Automolus cervinigularis
  46. Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner, Automolus exsertus
  47. Eastern Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Automolus``` ochrolaemus
  48. Western Woodhaunter, Automolus virgatus
  49. Eastern Woodhaunter, Automolus subulatus
  50. Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner, Automolus infuscatus
  51. Para Foliage-gleaner, Automolus paraensis
  52. White-eyed Foliage-gleaner, Automolus leucophthalmus
  53. Pernambuco Foliage-gleaner, Automolus lammi

Pseudocolaptini Ridgway 1911

  1. Bolivian Earthcreeper, Tarphonomus harterti
  2. Chaco Earthcreeper, Tarphonomus certhioides
  3. Rusty-winged Barbtail, Premnornis guttuliger
  4. Buffy Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes lawrencii
  5. Streaked Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii
  6. Pacific Tuftedcheek, Pseudocolaptes johnsoni

Furnariini G.R. Gray, 1840

  1. Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Lochmias nematura
  2. Wren-like Rushbird, Phleocryptes melanops
  3. Curve-billed Reedhaunter, Limnornis curvirostris
  4. Crested Hornero, Furnarius cristatus
  5. Lesser Hornero, Furnarius minor
  6. Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus
  7. Tricolored Hornero, Furnarius tricolor
  8. Wing-banded Hornero / Band-tailed Hornero, Furnarius figulus
  9. Caribbean Hornero, Furnarius longirostris
  10. Pacific Hornero, Furnarius cinnamomeus
  11. Pale-legged Hornero, Furnarius leucopus
  12. Pale-billed Hornero / Bay Hornero, Furnarius torridus
  13. Striated Earthcreeper, Geocerthia serrana
  14. Buff-breasted Earthcreeper, Upucerthia validirostris
  15. Patagonian Forest Earthcreeper, Upucerthia saturatior
  16. White-throated Earthcreeper, Upucerthia albigula
  17. Scale-throated Earthcreeper / Scaly-throated Earthcreeper, Upucerthia dumetaria
  18. Stout-billed Cinclodes, Cinclodes excelsior
  19. Royal Cinclodes, Cinclodes aricomae
  20. Long-tailed Cinclodes, Cinclodes pabsti
  21. White-bellied Cinclodes, Cinclodes palliatus
  22. Dark-bellied Cinclodes, Cinclodes patagonicus
  23. Surf Cinclodes / Peruvian Seaside Cinclodes, Cinclodes taczanowskii
  24. Seaside Cinclodes / Chilean Seaside Cinclodes, Cinclodes nigrofumosus
  25. Buff-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes fuscus
  26. Blackish Cinclodes, Cinclodes antarcticus
  27. Cordoba Cinclodes, Cinclodes comechingonus
  28. Chestnut-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes albidiventris
  29. Cream-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes albiventris
  30. White-winged Cinclodes, Cinclodes atacamensis
  31. Gray-flanked Cinclodes, Cinclodes oustaleti
  32. Olrog's Cinclodes, Cinclodes olrogi

Synallaxini: Spinetails de Selys-Longchamps, 1839 (1836)

  1. Masafuera Rayadito, Aphrastura masafuerae
    Click for Synallaxini species (4 pages)
    Click for Synallaxini
    species (4 pages)
  2. Thorn-tailed Rayadito, Aphrastura spinicauda
  3. Tawny Tit-Spinetail, Sylviorthorhynchus yanacensis
  4. Des Murs's Wiretail, Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii
  5. White-browed Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura xenothorax
  6. Tufted Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura platensis
  7. Araucaria Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura setaria
  8. Striolated Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura striolata
  9. Streaked Tit-Spinetail / Streak-backed Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura striata
  10. Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura pileata
  11. Brown-capped Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura fuliginiceps
  12. Plain-mantled Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura aegithaloides
  13. Pallid Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura pallida
  14. Andean Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura andicola
  15. Buffy Tit-Spinetail, Leptasthenura berlepschi
  16. Lark-like Brushrunner, Coryphistera alaudina
  17. Firewood-gatherer, Anumbius annumbi
  18. Streak-fronted Thornbird, Phacellodomus striaticeps
  19. Little Thornbird, Phacellodomus sibilatrix
  20. Plain Thornbird, Phacellodomus inornatus
  21. Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Phacellodomus rufifrons
  22. Orange-breasted Thornbird, Phacellodomus ferrugineigula
  23. Orange-eyed Thornbird, Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus
  24. Greater Thornbird, Phacellodomus ruber
  25. Freckle-breasted Thornbird, Phacellodomus striaticollis
  26. Chestnut-backed Thornbird, Phacellodomus dorsalis
  27. Spot-breasted Thornbird, Phacellodomus maculipectus
  28. White-browed Spinetail, Hellmayrea gularis
  29. Short-billed Canastero, "Asthenes" baeri
  30. Pale-tailed Canastero, "Asthenes" huancavelicae
  31. White-tailed Canastero, "Asthenes" usheri
  32. Rusty-vented Canastero, "Asthenes" dorbignyi
  33. Dark-winged Canastero, "Asthenes" arequipae
  34. Berlepsch's Canastero, "Asthenes" berlepschi
  35. Cipo Canastero, Siptornoides luizae
  36. Hudson's Canastero, Siptornoides hudsoni
  37. Line-fronted Canastero, Siptornoides urubambensis
  38. Many-striped Canastero, Siptornoides flammulatus
  39. Junin Canastero, Siptornoides virgatus
  40. Scribble-tailed Canastero, Siptornoides maculicauda
  41. Streak-throated Canastero, Siptornoides humilis
  42. Cordilleran Canastero, Siptornoides modestus
  43. Austral Canastero, Siptornoides anthoides
  44. Streak-backed Canastero, Siptornoides wyatti
  45. Puna Canastero, Siptornoides sclateri
  46. Itatiaia Spinetail, Asthenes moreirae
  47. Sharp-billed Canastero, Asthenes pyrrholeuca
  48. Maquis Canastero, Asthenes heterura
  49. Eye-ringed Thistletail, Asthenes palpebralis
  50. Rusty-fronted Canastero, Asthenes ottonis
  51. Vilcabamba Thistletail, Asthenes vilcabambae
  52. Ayacucho Thistletail, Asthenes ayacuchensis
  53. Puna Thistletail, Asthenes helleri
  54. Black-throated Thistletail, Asthenes harterti
  55. Canyon Canastero, Asthenes pudibunda
  56. Mouse-colored Thistletail, Asthenes griseomurina
  57. Ochre-browed Thistletail, Asthenes coryi
  58. Perija Thistletail, Asthenes perijana
  59. White-chinned Thistletail, Asthenes fuliginosa
  60. Bay-capped Wren-Spinetail, Spartonoica maluroides
  61. Rufous Cacholote / Gray-crested Cacholote, Pseudoseisura unirufa
  62. Caatinga Cacholote, Pseudoseisura cristata
  63. Brown Cacholote, Pseudoseisura lophotes
  64. White-throated Cacholote, Pseudoseisura gutturalis
  65. Pink-legged Graveteiro, Acrobatornis fonsecai
  66. Orange-fronted Plushcrown, Metopothrix aurantiaca
  67. Double-banded Graytail, Xenerpestes minlosi
  68. Equatorial Graytail, Xenerpestes singularis
  69. Spectacled Prickletail, Siptornis striaticollis
  70. Speckled Spinetail, Thripophaga gutturata
  71. Plain Softtail, Thripophaga fusciceps
  72. Roraiman Barbtail, Thripophaga adusta
  73. Orinoco Softtail, Thripophaga cherriei
  74. Delta Amacuro Softtail, Thripophaga amacurensis
  75. Striated Softtail, Thripophaga macroura
  76. Straight-billed Reedhaunter, Limnoctites rectirostris
  77. Sulphur-throated Spinetail / Sulphur-bearded Spinetail, Limnoctites sulphuriferus
  78. Russet-mantled Softtail, Cranioleuca berlepschi
  79. Marcapata Spinetail, Cranioleuca marcapatae
  80. Light-crowned Spinetail, Cranioleuca albiceps
  81. Rusty-backed Spinetail, Cranioleuca vulpina
  82. Parker's Spinetail, Cranioleuca vulpecula
  83. Coiba Spinetail, Cranioleuca dissita
  84. Scaled Spinetail, Cranioleuca muelleri
  85. Olive Spinetail, Cranioleuca obsoleta
  86. Pallid Spinetail, Cranioleuca pallida
  87. Stripe-crowned Spinetail, Cranioleuca pyrrhophia
  88. Bolivian Spinetail, Cranioleuca henricae
  89. Creamy-crested Spinetail, Cranioleuca albicapilla
  90. Slender-billed Spinetail, Cranioleuca debilis
  91. Tepui Spinetail, Cranioleuca demissa
  92. Streak-capped Spinetail, Cranioleuca hellmayri
  93. Crested Spinetail, Cranioleuca subcristata
  94. Gray-headed Spinetail, Cranioleuca semicinerea
  95. Ash-browed Spinetail, Cranioleuca curtata
  96. Red-faced Spinetail, Cranioleuca erythrops
  97. Line-cheeked Spinetail, Cranioleuca antisiensis
  98. Dusky-tailed Canastero, Pseudasthenes humicola
  99. Patagonian Canastero, Pseudasthenes patagonica
  100. Cactus Canastero, Pseudasthenes cactorum
  101. Steinbach's Canastero, Pseudasthenes steinbachi
  102. White-bellied Spinetail, Mazaria propinqua
  103. Chotoy Spinetail, Schoeniophylax phryganophilus
  104. Red-and-white Spinetail, Certhiaxis mustelinus
  105. Yellow-chinned Spinetail, Certhiaxis cinnamomeus
  106. Necklaced Spinetail, Synallaxis stictothorax
  107. Russet-bellied Spinetail, Synallaxis zimmeri
  108. Chinchipe Spinetail, Synallaxis chinchipensis
  109. Great Spinetail, Synallaxis hypochondriaca
  110. Ochre-cheeked Spinetail, Synallaxis scutata
  111. Gray-bellied Spinetail, Synallaxis cinerascens
  112. Maranon Spinetail, Synallaxis maranonica
  113. Plain-crowned Spinetail, Synallaxis gujanensis
  114. White-lored Spinetail, Synallaxis albilora
  115. Slaty Spinetail, Synallaxis brachyura
  116. Silvery-throated Spinetail, Synallaxis subpudica
  117. Blackish-headed Spinetail, Synallaxis tithys
  118. Hoary-throated Spinetail, Synallaxis kollari
  119. Rufous-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis erythrothorax
  120. White-whiskered Spinetail, Synallaxis candei
  121. Rusty-headed Spinetail, Synallaxis fuscorufa
  122. Black-throated Spinetail, Synallaxis castanea
  123. Merida Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis meridana
  124. Perija Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis munoztebari
  125. Colombian Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis ochrogaster
  126. Peruvian Rufous Spinetail, Synallaxis unirufa
  127. Stripe-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis cinnamomea
  128. Ruddy Spinetail, Synallaxis rutilans
  129. Chestnut-throated Spinetail, Synallaxis cherriei
  130. Dusky Spinetail, Synallaxis moesta
  131. Cabanis's Spinetail, Synallaxis cabanisi
  132. McConnell's Spinetail, Synallaxis macconnelli
  133. Pinto's Spinetail, Synallaxis infuscata
  134. Rufous-capped Spinetail, Synallaxis ruficapilla
  135. Bahia Spinetail, Synallaxis cinerea
  136. Red-shouldered Spinetail, Synallaxis hellmayri
  137. Cinereous-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis hypospodia
  138. Spix's Spinetail, Synallaxis spixi
  139. Dark-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis albigularis
  140. Rio Orinoco Spinetail, Synallaxis beverlyae
  141. Pale-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis albescens
  142. Azara's Spinetail, Synallaxis azarae
  143. Apurimac Spinetail, Synallaxis courseni
  144. Sooty-fronted Spinetail, Synallaxis frontalis

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